In Surah Al Kahf (Al Quran 18:71-82), there is story of Prophet Musa (a.s) and Khidr (a.s) in which three incidents take place where Khidr (a.s) apparently acted in a very strange manner because of which Prophet Musa (a.s) rebuked him. But later realized that reality behind Khidr's apparent actions was completely different. Three incidents: Khidr (a.s) damaged the boat carrying people and they landed on shore. He then killed an innocent child. Then he rebuilt a fallen wall in a town whose residents refused hospitality and were extremely greedy. The reality was: the child would’ve grown up to cause his parents to commit disbelief and Allah ﷻ was going to bless them with a pious one. The boat belonged to the poor and the damage prevented it from being captured by an oppressor king who was seizing boats. The wall had treasure buried underneath that belonged to 2 orphans which if exposed would’ve been usurped by the greedy town people.
Just as there was divine wisdom at play behind every act of Khidr (a.s), similarly there is greater divine wisdom at play with the rise of Islamophobia and Prophet Muhammad ﷺ predicted in the following hadith: “This matter (Islam) will certainly reach every place touched by the night and day. Allah will not leave a house or residence, but that Allah will cause this religion to enter it, by which the honorable will be honored, and the disgraceful will be disgraced. Allah will honor the honorable with Islam and he will disgrace the disgraceful with unbelief.” (Musnad Ahmad) With internet, mainstream media and social media there is no doubt that the matter of Islam and talk of Islam is entering every household in this world whenever there is an attack on a masjid, or a Muslim family, an individual Muslim, or if there’s suffering Muslims face anywhere in the world. The victims are honored because of their innocence, and the widespread awareness of such incidents becomes a source of Islam's awareness through which many are accepting it and will also be honored in this world and hereafter. Likewise, where there's sympathy and honor for Muslim victims and Islam, the disbelievers in Islam and supporters of Islamophobia are disgraced. This is also what the Prophetic hadith implies.
It was Christchurch, New Zealand where an Australian supremacist terrorist attacked Masjid Al Noor (Light) and killed and martyred more than 50 Muslims 2 years back. The aim was to suppress Islam by spreading fear. The attack shocked the whole world and Islam was mentioned in almost every household and thousands from across New Zealand flocked to Masjid Al Noor which also gave them exposure to the Noor (light) of Islam: (Al Quran 61:8-9) They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it. It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all (other) religions, although those who associate others with Allah dislike it.
In the heavens Adam (a.s) height was 60 cubits and on earth it was just normal like all other humans. From an Islamic perspective their height was 60 cubits in paradise and this is established due to authentic information in the following tradition:
Abu Huraira (r.a) reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying: "Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created Adam in His image with His length of sixty cubits, and as He created him He told him to greet that group, and that was a party of angels sitting there, and listen to the response that they give him, for it would form his greeting and that of his offspring. He then went away and said: Peace be upon you! (Asalaam O Alaikum). They (the angels) said: May there be peace upon you and the Mercy of Allah (Wa Alaikum Salaam Wa Rahmatullahi), and they made an addition of" Mercy of Allah". So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam (as he was in Paradise) his length being sixty cubits, then the people who followed him continued to diminish in size up to this day." The highlighted part of the hadith is where I believe the readers make an error when understanding. The Arabic words are فَلَمْ يَزَلِ الْخَلْقُ يَنْقُصُ بَعْدَهُ حَتَّى الآنَ usually translated as "then the people who followed him يَنْقُصُ (continued to diminish) in size up to this day" thinking that the tradition is speaking of some sort of an evolution which points towards humankind’s stature diminishing with time. This leads towards people trying to prove or disapprove using modern scientific findings which leads towards more confusion. This misunderstanding however is removed when we translate a bit different, the term يَنْقُصُ as it should, to make sense with the rest of the hadith such as "the creation is still يَنْقُصُ (lacking, cut off) after him until now" which means that creation i.e. humankind has continued to be deprived of that height or that humankind has not achieved this height since Adam’s fall. This also means Adam (a.s) had this height only in paradise and the creation can regain that back only in paradise, hence the wording "So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam (as he was in Paradise) his length being sixty cubits..."
A very important thing to mention and note is that in all the recorded hadith that one can collect on the subject of Adam’s height, does not mention anywhere him or his wife & our mother Hawwa (Eve) (alaihi salaam), having this height on earth. They all talk about their great height in the early part of their creation when they lived in paradise. The above tradition is quite clear that Adam (a.s) had that height only in paradise and not on earth due to the wording "... and as He created him He told him to greet that group (of angels)". The Quran also confirms that Adam (alaihi salaam) and the angels had their first encounter in the heavens and not on earth, which occurred after Adam (alaihi salaam) was created he lived in the gardens of heavens or paradise: "…And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam". And We said, "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in ..." It is during this time that his height was 60 cubits and inshA’Allah (God Willing) those who enter the paradise will have the same stature and height, as the Prophet ﷺ described other unbelievable qualities humans will have in paradise such as: "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and will resemble their father Adam (in stature), sixty cubits tall." Characteristics such as, ‘sweat will smell like must’, ‘will not urinate’, ’60 cubits tall’, are all unbelievable for people on earth as Allah ﷻ has said about the enjoyments and life of paradise: "No soul knows what joy is kept hidden in store for them as a reward for what they have done." or as the Prophet ﷺ mentioned about the joys of paradise from Allah ﷻ in a hadith e qudsi: “..No eye has seen, no ear has heard and no mind has imagined…”
The 60 cubits height is an impossible earthly human characteristic but very possible in the hereafter and Adam (alaihi salaam) and Hawwa (alaihi salaam) had this during their first stay in paradise. And Allah ﷻ knows best.
 Sahih Muslim 2841 - Sunnah.com
 Google Translation
 Al Quran 2:34–35
 Al Quran 32:17
 Sunan Ibn Majah - Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4328 - Sunnah.com
If one closely reads the narration of magic incident, the fact of the matter is that this was a test and trial which the Prophet ﷺ experienced just like he experienced several others and after undergoing suffering Allah ﷻ cured him from its effects and assisted him to succeed in the prophetic mission. Allah ﷻ has already declared in the Quran that regardless of how great a magicians trick and harm is, it will always be an illusory success: "…and the magician will never be successful, no matter whatever amount (of skill) he may attain." And Allah ﷻ has already said that if any magic effect does happen, it cannot do so unless He wills it: "but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic…..but they injure thereby none except by Allah's permission. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not." This is exactly what happened when the Prophet ﷺ was afflicted with harm, it happened because Allah ﷻ willed as a test but it did not last long, it was eventually exposed and destroyed as that too was His will. The following narration explains everything in detail:
"A man called Labid bin al-A'sam from the tribe of Bani Zaraiq worked magic on Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) till Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) started imagining that he had done a thing that he had not really done. One day or one night he was with us, he invoked Allah and invoked for a long period, and then said 'O Aisha! Do you know that Allah has instructed me concerning the matter I have asked him about? Two men (i.e. angels) came to me and one of them sat near my head and the other near my feet. One of them said to his companion, "What is the disease of this man?" The other replied, "He is under the effect of magic.' The first one asked, 'Who has worked the magic on him?' The other replied, "Labid bin Al-A'sam.' The first one asked, 'What material did he use?' The other replied, 'A comb and the hairs stuck to it and the skin of pollen of a male date palm.' The first one asked, 'Where is that?' The other replied, '(That is) in the well of Dharwan;' "So Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) along with some of his companions went there and came back saying, "O Aisha, the color of its water is like the infusion of Henna leaves. The tops of the date-palm trees near it are like the heads of the devils." I asked. "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)? Why did you not show it (to the people)?" He said, "Since Allah cured me, I disliked to let evil spread among the people." Then he ordered that the well be filled up with earth.'”
There are couple of lessons we learn from this hadith which explains why divine wisdom allowed this incident to happen and how this has become a source of mercy for the Muslims till the end of the world. Firstly the Prophet ﷺ was effected by its harm which proves his human nature and that he is not divine and that divinity only belongs to Allah ﷻ. Secondly after he was afflicted, he prayed to Allah ﷻ for assistance and his prayers were eventually answered. Thirdly he did not make a hue and cry because of his humble character, he forgave the personal harm done to him. Fourthly, he taught us through this incident that if Allah ﷻ cures the harm then don’t unnecessarily inform people of this evil as that could tempt others to learn this science and harm each other. Fifth, as a result of this incident 2 Surahs were revealed which continues to assist Muslims in countering the effects of magic and all kinds of evil: Surah Falaq (Chapter 113) & Surah An Nass (Chapter 114). Surah Falaq (Chapter 113) includes wording on how to protect from all harmful actions that come from Allah's creation such as evil eye, jealously and especially the effect of magic: "Say, ‘I seek refuge with the Lord of daybreak. From the evil of whatever He has created. And from the evil of the night when it grows dark, And from the evil of the witchcrafts when they blow in the knots. And from the evil of an envier when he envies." Surah An Nass (Chapter 114) assists us to seek protection from the evil and harm that comes from 2 of His creations, ones which can be seen which are humans and others which remain hidden from us i.e. Jinn (the invisible beings): "Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of humankind, the Master of humankind, the God of humankind, from the evil of the lurking whisperer, who whispers into the hearts of humankind, from among jinn and humankind.”
The Prophet ﷺ found the comb with hair and noticed 11 tied knots. He kept reciting verses from these two Surahs as he untied each knot and the total number of verses of both are also 11. The scholars say that magic involves the tying of 11 knots and this is one the reasons why these were revealed i.e. to make Muslim learn so that they recite and repel any harms of similar magic. Thereafter, Prophet ﷺ used to recite these 2 Surahs along with Surah Ikhlaas (Chapter 112), 3 times each before sunrise and at the time of sunset. He would also blow on his hands and rub over his body before going to sleep and these are things in which we follow his example. This incident teaches us the divine wisdom of Allah ﷻ that He made His beloved suffer and take over himself the effect of this evil before He revealed certain Surahs to teach Muslims on how to protect themselves from harms. By becoming a victim and sacrificing himself, the Prophet ﷺ became an example for us on how to notice the harms should anyone become a victim and how to eventually overcome this evil.
 Al Quran 20:69
 Al Quran 2:102
 Sahih al-Bukhari 5763 - Sunnah.com
 Al Quran 113:1–5
 Al Quran 114:1-6
Narrated Abu Bakra: During the battle of Al-Jamal, Allah benefited me with a Word (I heard from the Prophet). When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosraw their Queen (ruler), he said, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."
Islam is a deen (way of life) of human nature and men and women have traditional roles in Islam and each fulfills their role in the society according to their natures created by Allah ﷻ. The hadith specifically expresses Prophet's concern when he heard about a woman taking leadership of an empire with its political, military, international and highly important affairs of that state. His concern was not to prevent women from assuming leadership roles in general societal affairs such as trading, education, medicine etc. which unfortunately has been misinterpreted by many. In Islam males are given preference over females when it comes to ruling affairs of the state. Allah ﷻ has said in the Quran when he created Adam (alaihi salaam): (Al Quran 2:30) "… I am going to place in the earth a khalifa (viceroy, representative).." In Islam a khalifa (representative) is someone who is handed over the responsibility and shoulder's it as a trust. Allah ﷻ preferred Adam (alaihi salaam) to be His first prophet and khalifa or caliph (representative) on earth instead of Hawwa (Eve) because Adam (alaihi salaam) has been handed the trust of rulership, the greatest responsibility in any given society. Hence the verse teaches us a crucial point that prophethood & rulership are synonymous with each other which is further emphasized by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ when he said: "The Banu Israil (children of Israel) were ruled by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him. There will be no Prophet after me. Caliphs will come after me, and they will be many.”  Hence we notice the fact that all prophets and messengers that have ever lived in human history were male and none were female. Therefore even though prophethood came to its completion with the arrival of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ the rulers will now succeed the prophets, and the successors of the prophets like the prophets can only be male.
Hence having designated Prophet Adam (a.s) as His first representative and prophet, Allah ﷻ has given his male descendants the primary responsibility for the use of land, its resources and those subordinate to them and rule them with the law and guidance that has continued to be revealed throughout human history. It is also due to this reason as a rule in Islam a leader leads the Friday prayers and important festivities such as Hajj and Eid prayers etc. which women cannot. Also, there is continuous process of decision making involved for leaders as political authorities or chief of armed forces, a role inconsistent with the physiological and psychological make up of women because during pregnancies and menstrual cycles their decision making might be impacted. Its extremely important to note that even in these modern times, even among highly developed secular nations, none has a woman serving as their chief of armed forces and extremely fewer number of women serve in the armed forces, or serving as presidents & prime ministers, due to obvious natural reasons.
A question arises if the Prophet ﷺ mean’t that women cannot succeed at all if they becomes rulers?
The hadith does not preclude the possibility of women not being able to become rulers at all. There are exceptions and Islamic history confirms how great Muslim women became state rulers and proved their skills, in fact even better in some ways than many men. Despite the fact that generally speaking women undergo physiological and psychological changes, yet some women have displayed exceptional qualities such as Sayyida al Hurra (1515-1542 CE) - the title "sayyida al Hurra" means "noble lady who is free and independent; the woman sovereign who bows to no superior authority." She played a significant role in the brave defense of her people in the Maghreb (North Africa) region against the Spanish and other European pirates in the Mediterranean. Arwa al-Sulayhi of Yemen (1048–1138 CE) - Arwa is said by the chroniclers of her time to be brave, devout and have an independent character. She was also seen as highly intelligent and well learned, having a great memory for poems, stories and historical events. Hence women in Islam can take such leadership roles, however the matter of preference takes precedence in Islam due to natural make up of each gender and the role each plays within the Islamic environment and in order to maintain the continuacy of that preference the Prophet ﷺ discouraged their rulership by stating: “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler.”
 Sahih al-Bukhari 7099 - www.Sunnah.com
 Riyad us-saliheen Book 1, Hadith 656 – Sunnah.com
Narration of Musa (alaihi salaam) Death
The Angel of Death was sent to Moses, when he came to Moses, Moses slapped him on the eye. The angel returned to his Lord and said, "You have sent me to a Slave who does not want to die." Allah ﷻ said, "Return to him and tell him to put his hand on the back of an ox and for every hair that will come under it, he will be granted one year of life." Moses said, "O Lord! What will happen after that?" Allah ﷻ replied, "Then death." Moses said, "Let it come now." Moses then requested Allah ﷻ to let him die close to the Sacred Land (Sahih al-Bukhari 3407)
The angels did and can appear in the form of a man. This is true not only from the above hadith but several ahadith and even the Quran. Angels like Angel Gabriel (alaihi Salaam) did appear to the Prophet in the form of a man not once but several times. In fact the companion also witnessed him such as in the famous hadith e Jibreel and one time even Bibi Fatima (alaihi Salaam) saw Azraeel (alaihi salaam), the angel of death, when he knocked on the door of their house. When they appear with human body then their appearance will carry the characteristics of human nature which includes being hurt but that doesn’t hurt their actual self. It was the apparent form of the angel that got hurt by Musa (alaihi salaam) and not their original spiritual form. Angels appeared to Ibrahim (alaihi Salaam) in the human form to give him good news of the birth of Ishaac (alaihi salaam) and he even cooked food for them: (Al Quran 11:69) "And certainly Our messengers came to Ibrahim with good news. They said: Peace. Peace, said he, and he made no delay in bringing a roasted calf."
Narration of Musa (alaihi salaam) Bathing
Narrated Abu Huraira (r.a) Allah's Messenger ﷺ said, "(The Prophet) Moses was a shy person and used to cover his body completely because of his extensive shyness. One of the children of Israel hurt him by saying, "He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect." Allah wished to clear Moses of what they said about him, so one day while Moses was in seclusion, he took off his clothes and put them on a stone and started taking a bath. When he had finished the bath, he moved towards his clothes so as to take them, but the stone took his clothes and fled; Moses picked up his stick and ran after the stone saying, "O stone! Give me my garment!" Till he reached a group of Bani Israel who saw him naked then, and found him the best of what Allah had created, and Allah cleared him of what they had accused him of. The stone stopped there and Moses took and put his garment on and started hitting the stone with his stick. By Allah, the stone still has some traces of the hitting, three, four or five marks. This was what Allah refers to in His Saying:-- "O you who believe! Be you not like those Who annoyed Moses, But Allah proved his innocence of that which they alleged, And he was honorable In Allah's Sight." (Al Quran 33:69) (Sahih Bukhari 3404)
The verse of the Quran (33:69) pertains to the above mentioned incident as recorded by many Quran commentators such as Imam Suyuti, Imam ibn Kathir etc. The sick rumors being spread by Bani Israel about Musa (alaihi Salaam) private parts being defected, could not be cleared had they demanded him to take off his clothes and show them his body. Naturally he would be shy and a believer will always be shy to show his private parts. Therefore Allah ﷻ made this incident take place to clear him from this allegation. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ narrated the above incident of Musa (alaihi Salaam) when he himself was angered by one of the companions who gave him trouble. While dividing up the spoils a man said to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ "This is a division that is not to please God!" hearing this the Prophet ﷺ became angered and said "May God have mercy upon Moses for truly he was hurt with worse than this but endured." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir- Surah 33. Al-Ahzab, Ayah 69)
Narration about a Prophet Burning Ants
I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) saying: "An ant bit a Prophet amongst the Prophets, and he ordered that the place of the ants be burnt. So, Allah inspired to him, '"It is because one ant bit you that you burnt a nation amongst the nations that glorify Allah?" (Sahih al-Bukhari 3019) This tradition explains about an event narrated by the Prophet ﷺ to his companions to teach them about prohibition of unnecessarily killing creatures such as ants, bees, birds such as sparrows etc. This teaching is echoed in another narration from Ibn Abbas (r.a) that the Prophet ﷺ prohibited to kill four creatures: "ants, bees, hoopoes, and sparrow-hawks." (Sunan Abi Dawud 5267)
Narration of Prophet Suleiman (alaihi salaam) & His Wives
Narrated Abu Huraira (r.a) Allah's Prophet Solomon who had sixty wives, once said: "Tonight I will have intercourse (sleep) with all my wives so that each of them will become pregnant and bring forth (a boy who will grow into) a cavalier and will fight in Allah's Cause." So he slept with his wives and none of them (conceived and) delivered (a child) except one who brought a half (body) boy (deformed). Allah's Prophet said, "If Solomon had said; 'If Allah Will,' then each of those women would have delivered a (would-be) cavalier to fight in Allah's Cause." (Sahih al-Bukhari 7469) This is an intention which Prophet Suleiman (alaihi Salaam) made for a good cause but he did not say the word "InshA’Allah i.e. If Allah Wills". This tradition is to teach the believers to always say InshA’Allah (If Allah Wills) for we, including the prophets, cannot succeed without the will of Allah ﷻ, even though we might be fully determined. The following Verse of the Quran was revealed to guide Prophet Muhammad ﷺ when he promised to answer questions to disbelievers of Makkah but forgot to say the words ‘InshA’Allah’ i.e. If Allah Wills: (Al Quran 18:23–24) "And never say of anything, "I shall do such and such thing tomorrow." Except (with the saying), "If Allah wills!"
Narration of the Prophet's Prayer
Salim, the freed slave of Nasriyyin, said: I heard Abu Huraira (r.a) as saying that he heard Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying: "O Allah, Muhammad is a human being. I lose my temper just as human beings lose temper, and I have held a covenant with You which You would not break for a believer whom I give any trouble or invoke curse or beat, make that an expiation (of his sins and a source of) his nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection." (Sahih Muslim 2601 e) Prophet Muhammad ﷺ made this dua to teach the entire Ummah that if they may have done any of the above listed acts such as cursed or hurt someone and if they feel guilty about it but cannot find them to ask their pardon then they should express in these words to Allah ﷻ for them. This dua will do good for that person whom they had hurt by forgiving their sins.
Narration of shaytaan whispering
Narrated Abu Huraira (r.a) Allah's Messenger ﷺ said, "When the Adhan is pronounced Satan takes to his heels and passes wind with noise during his flight in order not to hear the Adhan. When the Adhan is completed he comes back and again takes to his heels when the Iqama is pronounced and after its completion he returns again till he whispers into the heart of the person (to divert his attention from his prayer) and makes him remember things which he does not recall to his mind before the prayer and that causes him to forget how much he has prayed." (Sahih al-Bukhari 608) Any Muslim who prays or has prayed will agree that several thoughts come in to one’s mind when concentration in prayers. Such thoughts that occur are referred to as the whispering of shayateen (pl of shaytan i.e. devils). The whisperings of the devils are mentioned in other prophetic traditions narrated from other companions such as in dreams: “If anyone of you sees a dream that he dislikes, let him spit dryly (blow) to his left three times and seek refuge with Allah from Satan three times, and turn over onto his other side.” (Sunan Ibn Majah) The Prophet ﷺ has been given knowledge of Unseen by Allah ﷻ therefore he knows how devils act and how to protect oneself from their acts. Quran mentions these satanic whispering and how to protect oneself from them: (Al Quran 23:97) And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the shayateen (devils). (Al Quran 114:1–6) Say: “I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind….. from who whispers in the hearts of people; whether he be from the jinn or humans." Do devils eat, drink, sleep, talk, etc? There are several Verses of the Quran and the prophetic traditions that talk about their food and drinking and other habits. Therefore "passing wind" act should not be a surprise for those who believe.
Narration of the Khaibar Conquest
Narrated Abu Huraira (r.a) "When we conquered Khaibar, we gained neither gold nor silver as booty, but we gained cows, camels, goods and gardens..." (Sahih al-Bukhari 4234) The word used by Abu Huraira (r.a) "we" does not include him but "we" means us, the Muslims when they conquered Khaibar. By saying "we", he is narrating the event but not including himself. The purpose of the above narration is to tell as to what happened when wealth fell in to the hands of the Muslims after Khaibar was conquered. They did not get any gold, silver or lands. Another companion Abdullah ibn Abbas (r.a) also confirms the above narration of Abu Huraira when he says that Muslims did not get any silver or gold : "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) conquered Khaibar, and stipulated that all the land, gold and silver would belong to him." (Sunan Abi Dawud 3410)
Why was Abu Huraira’s governorship taken away?
During the caliphate of Umar (r.a), Abu Huraira (r.a) was appointed as governor of Bakrain. Umar (r.a) was very scrupulous about the type of persons whom he appointed as governors. He was always concerned that his governors should live simply and frugally and not acquire much wealth even if it was through lawful means. In Bahrain, Abu Huraira (r.a) became quite rich. Umar (r.a) heard of this and recalled him to Madinah. Umar (r.a) doubted that he had acquired his wealth through unlawful means and questioned him about where and how he had acquired such a fortune. Abu Huraira (r.a) replied: "From breeding horses and gifts which I received." "Hand it over to the treasury of the Muslims," ordered Umar (r.a). Abu Huraira (r.a) did as he was told and raised his hands to the heavens and prayed: "O Lord, forgive the Amir al-Muminin!" Subsequently, Umar (r.a) asked him to become governor once again but he declined. Umar (r.a) asked him why he refused and he said: "So that my honor would not be besmirched, my wealth taken and my back beaten." Source: Abu Hurayrah http://www.sunnah.org/history/Sahaba/hurayrah.html - If Abu Huraira (r.a) was considered a liar by Umar (r.a) then he would not ask him to become governor again. Umar was very strict as compared to other companions of the Prophet ﷺ therefore he had beaten Abu Huraira (r.a) not because the latter was a liar.
Did Aisha (r.a) consider Abu Huraira (r.a) a liar?
I believe one tradition would be sufficient to prove that she considered his testimony and narrations from the Prophet ﷺ as truthful. Abu Huraira (r.a) narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "Whoever performs the funeral prayer then he will get a reward equal to a Qirat. Whoever follows it until it is buried then he will get a reward equal to two Qirat, one of them, or the least of them, is similar to Uhud (mountain)." This was mentioned to Ibn Umar, so he sent a message to Aisha (r.a) to ask her about that, and she said: "Abu Hurairah has told the truth." So Ibn Umar said: "We have missed many Qirat." (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1040) In case of doubt that the above tradition was only narrated by Abu Huraira (r.a) then a similar tradition mentions the reward of 2 Qirats for a funeral prayer narrated by Ubay Ibn Ka’ab (r.a) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever offers the funeral prayer will have one Qirat; and whoever attends until the burial is over, will have two Qirat. By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad! The Qirat is greater than this (mountain of) Uhud.” (Sunan ibn Majah - Vol. 1, Book 6, Hadith 1541)
There is much wisdom as to why Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said those words. First of all to simply answer your question if this hadith is sound or no then yes it is sound and recorded in authentic books of hadith. Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "If there was to have a Prophet after me, it would have been 'Umar bin Al-Khattab." Secondly what the Prophet ﷺ said does not mean that he considers Umar (r.a) a prophet. What he says is based on the fact observed and agreed upon by all companions which is answered in another hadith where Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Indeed Allah has put the truth upon the tongue and in the heart of Umar." And Ibn 'Umar said “No affair occurred among the people, except that they said something about it, and 'Umar said something about it, except that the Qur'an was revealed in line with what 'Umar had said.”
A prophet speaks nothing but the truth whether from his ownself or directly from Allah ﷻ, and Umar (r.a) was very strong in this prophetic characteristic, not that he was a prophet or considered one. The reason how we find that truth was placed on the tongue of Umar (r.a) and in his heart was because there were several instances when Prophet ﷺ and his companions faced with situation where they awaited Allah’s response through revelation and Umar (r.a) shared his opinion. Later the verses revealed confirmed the opinion of Umar (r.a). Below commandments revealed in Quran corroborated Umar’s opinion:
1. Umar (r.a) suggested that the station of Abraham in Makkah should be used as a place of prayer. Later an injunction to this effect was revealed to the Holy Prophet in Surah Baqara (chapter 2).
2. Umar (r.a) suggested that the wives of the Prophet ﷺ should be veiled. Later a verse was revealed enjoining the wives of the Prophet ﷺ to be veiled in Surah Al Ahzaab (Chapter 33).
3. Umar (r.a) suggested that the use of wine should be prohibited. Thereafter Allah enjoined the prohibition of wine in Surah Al Maidah (Chapter 5).
4. Abdullah bin Ubbay was one of the hyprocites, insincere in his professions and was the enemy of Allah and Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. When he died the Prophet led his funeral prayer. Umar (r.a) suggested that the Prophet ﷺ should not pray at the funeral of those who were the enemies of Allah and the Prophet. A verse was later revealed enjoining the Prophet not to pray at the funeral of those who were the enemies of Allah and His Prophet ﷺ in Surah Taubah (Chapter 9).
5. When there was an imputation against the conduct of Prophet's beloved wife Ayesha (r.a), Umar (r.a) said that this was a grievous calumny. Later a verse was revealed declaring the episode as a calumny and establishing Ayesha's innocence in Surah Nur (Chapter 24).
6. When the Adhaan was originally proposed the contents of the call were: "I testify that there is no god but Allah-come towards prayers." Umar (r.a) suggested, "The words 'I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God' should be added". A revelation corroborated this suggestion.
7. Once a Jew said to Umar (r.a): "Verily Angel Gabriel who speaks to your Master is our enemy." Umar (r.a) retorted, "Whosoever is an enemy to Allah, or His angels, or His Messengers, or Gabriel, or Michael, verily Allah is an enemy to the unbelievers." Later a verse was revealed declaring that Allah was the enemy of unbelievers in Surah Baqara (Chapter 2nd).
These instances confirms the truth that Allah ﷻ placed on Umar’s tongue and in his heart just as the Prophet ﷺ truthfully said about him. Now if the question arises how is this possible then it is very much possible for a believer to have insight in to what is right and wrong and this comes due to light of faith and conviction just as the Prophet ﷺ taught us: "Beware of the believer's intuition, for indeed he sees with Allah's Light." The intuition occurs in a believer’s heart and he confirms it with his or her tongue. The knowledge of this intuition occurs in our souls whose origin is heavenly and if pure gains access to the presence of angels. In the Quran it is said He has knowledge of everything (Kulli Shayyi’n) and He compares His Knowledge to Nur (Light): (Al Quran 24:35) "….God guides whoever He will to his Light; God draws such comparisons for people; God has full knowledge of everything" Such was the case of Umar (r.a) except that he had a very strong intuitive ability. In fact the Quran also speaks about Khidr (alaihi salaam) who was given mystical insight from Allah ﷻ though he was not a Prophet: (Al Quran 18:65) ".. on whom We had bestowed grace from Ourselves and to whom We had imparted knowledge [issuing] from Ourselves." But what is important to note is that not only him but several other companions of the Prophet also had knowledge and insight through intuition. Please read my answer to this question that explains how Allah (swt) reveals the knowledge of unseen to his chosen ones who are not Prophets & Messengers. This also includes how Adhaan was revealed to Umar (r.a) via a dream and dreams are also means through which Allah (swt) reveals the knowledge of unseen. Zaid Shaw's answer to Does only Allah have knowledge of the future?
 Jami Tirmidhi - Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3686
 Jami Tirmidhi - Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3682
 Professor Masud-ul-Hasan,1982, Islamic Publications, Lahore, Pakistan - http://www.alim.org/library/biography/khalifa/content/KUM/20/12
 Jami Tirmidhi - Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3127
No doubt the Prophet ﷺ said “I was sent to perfect good character”, which is one of the key factors of peaceful coexistence in our social environment and relationships, in any given human society. However, the hadith does not mean that he was only sent for that purpose, but that this purpose of good morals and behavior fulfills the greater purpose of Dawah i.e. spread of Islam and invitation for all towards the path of guidance, the way of Allah ﷻ. Especially when doing Dawah (invitation) towards Islam, one should always be mindful of this essential factor because it makes the mission much more effective and inspiring. The best example of this given in the Quran is when Allah ﷻ commanded Prophet Musa (alaihi salaam) to visit and invite Pharaoh towards guidance and Islam:
(Al Quran 20:43–44) Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, for he has exceeded all bounds. Speak to him gently so that he may take heed, or show respect.
Despite the fact that Allah ﷻ knew Pharaoh had “exceeded all bounds”, He still advised Musa (alaihi salaam) and his brother Haroon (alaihi salaam) to be at their best in behavior and character when delivering His Message because our behavior impacts what we are delivering. Since Prophet Muhammad ﷺ knew this very well, his emphasis on improving human behavior was the greatest, keeping in mind the fact that after his passing away, Muslims bear the responsibility to deliver the message in its correct form to those who are ignorant i.e. Non-Muslims as well as Muslims.
Original answer written on Dec 30, 2019 - Is fasting on 10th of Muharram, the day of Ashura a fabrication in Islam?
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ ordered the Muslims to fast this day after he saw the Jews fasting this day as a celebration because Allah ﷻ saved them from Pharaoh on this day. Hence he said: “I am closer to Moses than they (Jews)." So, he observed the fast (on that day) and ordered the Muslims to fast on it.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3397)
Unfortunately some circles among Shia Muslims question the credibility of this hadith of fasting on Ashura because they allege that Prophet’s beloved grandson Imam Hussain (alaihi salaam) was killed on this day hence the Bannu Umayyad Caliphs shifted the focus of this crime by introducing this hadith among the Muslims so that it is considered a day of celebration. To support this claim they give the following reasons for questioning its credibility:
Firstly the hadith narration is not only limited to four companions, in fact it has also narrated by an Ansari (Helper) companion named Abu Qatada Al Ansari (r.a) who was an older companion when the Prophet ﷺ was in Madinah and the hadith is found in Sahih Muslim:
Abu Qatada al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was asked about his fasting: “He was asked about fasting on the day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram), whereupon he said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year.” (Sahih Muslim 1162 b)
Additionally, it was also narrated by the most intimate and beloved wife of the Prophet, Ayesha (r.a) who knew all his teachings and practices. As for the four companions Ibn Abbas (r.a), Abu Musa Al-Ashari (r.a), Abu Huraira (r.a) and Muawiya may not have been in Madinah or were very young yet that does not nullify the fact that they were aware of what the practices of the Prophet and his companions in Madinah used to be. They were not very little at the time of narrating this incident, they were reputable scholars in Madinah, Kufa and Makkah where they were teaching traditions to other Muslims. Also the fasting of Ashura was made optional (nafl) once Ramadaan became obligatory (fard) in Madinah but before Ramadaan became obligatory (fard) the Ashura fast was of obligatory nature. Hence all Muslims in Madinah strongly adhered to this act of worship. Such as Ibn Umar (r.a) said: “But when (the order of compulsory fasting) in the month of Ramadan was revealed, the Prophet said, "It is up to one to fast on it (i.e. day of 'Ashura') or not." (Sahih Al Bukhari 4501)
Answer to the second point
As for the term “Ashura” it did exist even in the Jewish tradition. The word "tenth" in Hebrew is Asarah or Asharah (עשרה), which is from the same Semitic root A-SH-R. For instance the in the Torah Book of Leviticus designates the tenth day of the seventh month as holy and a fast (Lev. 16, Lev. 23, Num. 29) and the Jewish term used for the 10th day is Asharah (עשרה). Leviticus 16 / Hebrew. Most importantly the Quraysh used to observe fast in Makkah on this day even in pre-Islamic times as Narrated Aisha (r.a) : “'Ashura' (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the tribe of Quraish used to fast in the prelslamic period of ignorance.” (Sahih Al Bukhari - 3831)
Answer to the third point
The modern Jews don’t fast on this day which is correct. We also need to keep in mind that Jews, all of them do not follow same thought, there are various sects and groups that have existed in the past and still exist. Some have survived down to our times while others perished in history. For instance the Quran claims that Jews worship Uzair (Ezra) as the son of God but modern Jews don’t follow that practice but the Jews of Madinah did follow this belief and hence they were a separate group that carried that belief: (Al Quran 9:30) AND THE JEWS say, "Ezra is God's son," while the Christians say, "The Christ is God's son." Such are the sayings which they utter with their mouths, following in spirit assertions made in earlier times by people who denied the truth!" [They deserve the imprecation:] "May God destroy them!" - Whats more interesting to note is that the day of Ashura usually coincides with the 10th day of Tishri one of the months of Hebrew Calendar. Tishri usually falls in September - October of the global Gregorian Calendar and in the year of 2018 both Ashura and tenth of Tishri fell on the exact same day. This year (2019) the 10th Ashura was on September 10th and 10th Tishri was on September 11th. The tenth day of Tishri is the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur which is still a day when Jews fast! Even though Yom Kippur is celebrated because Prophet Musa (alaihi salaam) came back from Mt. Sinai. Nevertheless it does show some coincidence.
Answer to the fourth point
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was already fasting himself before he moved to Madinah. After he moved to Madinah he ordered the Muslims to fast with him and made it obligatory (fard) for everyone as narrated Aisha (r.a): “The Prophet (ﷺ) also used to fast on this day. So when he migrated to Medina, he fasted on it and ordered (the Muslims) to fast on it.” (Sahih Al Bukhari 3831) This pre-Islamic tradition may have been because of the holiness of this day in the history of mankind such as the incidents of:
• Allah created the heavens, mountains, oceans, pen (qalam) and tablet (lawh) on this day.
• Hazrath Ibrahim (alaihi salaam) was born, and Allah ﷻ saved him from the furnace on this day.
• Pharaoh was drowned,
• Allah ﷻ forgave the transgression Adam (alaihi salaam) ,
• Isa (alaihi salaam) was born on this day
• The day of Reckoning will occur on this day.
(Al Ghunya Talibi Tariq al-Haqq )
The apparent wording of some ahadith claim that “he started fasting when he came to Madinah” doesn’t mean that his arrival happened in Muharram. It may have happened in some other month but the order to fasting was given to Muslims in the month of Muharram after his arrival in Madinah and thats what it means.
Answer to the fifth point
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was not only following Jews in their fasting on the day of Ashura. In fact he followed also their Qiblah (Jerusalem) before Kabah (Makkah) was finalized as the Qiblah for Muslims. He also gave Shariah punishments in according to the Jewish law such as stoning as well as others practices. These he followed to prove that his revelation is not separate from what was taught by the previous prophets and their followers. Nevertheless he ordered the Muslims to fast an extra day with the 10th of Muharram (i.e. 9th or 11th), so that in this act Muslims are considered distinct from Jews and Judaism.
(Al Quran 30:21) And of His Signs is that He has created mates for you from your own kind that you may find peace in them and He has set between you love and mercy. Surely there are Signs in this for those who reflect.
The purpose of marriage in Islam is beautiful, and to fulfill this purpose it involves rights that are due to each other. Allah ﷻ created pairs of men and women among humankind and engendered love and mercy between them. It is due to this reason why both are attracted towards each others characteristics, personality and appearance. Every process has its way of application and the way to facilitate the process of communion between both genders Allah ﷻ guided them towards the act of marriage so they may fulfill the purpose of their creation in a righteous manner. The act of marriage and its rules are there to facilitate this process move in a right direction as opposed to male and female genders fulfilling their attraction by means of extra marital acts of adultery and fornication.
Having understood this fact, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ being a messenger of Allah ﷻ on earth advised the Muslim couples of what was good for their marriage and what was apprehensive in order to strengthen their marriage and prevent any sort of harm to affect their relationships. He as part of his Prophetic mission gave several advises pertaining to marital rights between married couples including sexual rights.
A man’s wife complained about her husband to the Prophet ﷺ that he spends his time so much in to worshiping that he did not fulfill her rights to which he was called and given the following advice: Allah's Messenger ﷺ said, "O`Abdullah! Have I not been informed that you fast all the day and stand in prayer all night?" I said, "Yes, O Allah's Messenger ﷺ!" He said, "Do not do that! Observe the fast sometimes and also leave them (the fast) at other times; stand up for the prayer at night and also sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you." (Sahih Al-Bukhari) (Sources listed under references)
As per recorded traditions the Prophet ﷺ advised the husband that if wife asks for intercourse, he should not refuse. He even warned against rushing to fulfill one’s pleasure and forgetting that of one’s wife. He also disliked that the husband should immediately withdraw from his wife afterwards, as it is causes strain upon the wife.
In an Islamic marriage its the responsibility of the husband to provide the wife with taking care of all her needs such as clothes, food, shelter, her expenditures, providing allowance in addition to kind treatment, intimacy relations including needs of their children. The wife has not been burdened to provide these things for her children or for her own self. If the husband fulfills his role as a caretaker of the family then he also has the right to demand from his wife what is his due. It is in the light of these facts that one needs to understand the following authentic hadith: Abu Hurairah (r.a) reported the Prophet ﷺ as saying “When a man calls his wife to come to his bed and she refuses and does not come to him and he spends the night angry, the angels curse her till the morning.” (Sunan Abu Dawud) (Sources listed under references)
This refusal from the wife that the Prophet ﷺ is referring to is not is not due to a valid reason from her, its merely to bother or give difficult time to the husband. The Imams of the past have said that when sexual passion takes over a man then 2/3 rd of his Aql (intellect) disappears. A man’s rights not being given may disturb the entire family structure due to him being the most basic and solid foundation of this structure. To prevent this from happening the Prophet ﷺ indeed said the above words to Muslim wives.
What is the curse from an Angel?
Firstly this curse is not a dramatic curse as depicted in a hollywood or bollywood movie in which the cursed character becomes diseased or turns in to an evil person affecting every one. The curses of the angels is referring to withdrawal of Allah’s mercy from her and this is proven by another hadith which teaches that mercy descends over a loving couple: The Prophet ﷺ said “When a husband and wife look at each other with love, Allah looks at both with Mercy” (recorded in Imam Suyuti’s al-Jami al-Saghir) (Sources listed under references)
The angels on earth from Allah ﷻ invoke His mercy and forgiveness on the believers. When a married couple express love to each other the mercy of Allah ﷻ descends on them. If anyone of them is unjust towards each other then the angels do not invoke for mercy but rebuke such persons. A wife failing to fulfill the husband’s right over her is rebuked by the angels which causes a withdrawal of Allah’s mercy from her. However this mercy remains withdrawn as the above hadith stated “..till the morning.” It is is not a curse that would affect her for life as such, please note. But if the wife regrets her denial to the husband and goes back to him during the same night then the angels invoke mercy of Allah ﷻ on them both till morning.
Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
Love, Good Character, and Mercy Between Spouses - SeekersHub Answers
Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
In Islam there are 2 kinds of killing:
The forbidden one is the taking away of innocent lives which is harshly condemned by Allah ﷻ and if anyone does it then they will be punished in the hereafter had they not been punished in this life or repented before death: (Al Quran 5:32) "if anyone slays a human being unless it be [in punishment] for murder or for spreading corruption on earth - it shall be as though he had slain all mankind; whereas, if anyone saves a life, it shall be as though he had saved the lives of all mankind."
The one in which Muslims are encouraged to kill, and get killed, is when fighting against injustice and oppression, for the sake of truth and justice, and this is considered fighting in the way of Allah ﷻ. The characteristics of such persons are mentioned in the Quran:
‘(Al Quran 9:111–112) BEHOLD, God has bought of the believers their lives and their possessions, promising them paradise in return,[and so] they fight in God's cause, and slay, and are slain: a promise which in truth He has willed upon Himself in [the words of] the Torah, and the Gospel, and the Qur'an. And who could be more faithful to his covenant than God? Rejoice, then, in the bargain which you have made with Him: for this, this is the triumph supreme! [It is a triumph of] those who turn [to God] in repentance [whenever they have sinned], and who worship and praise [Him], and go on and on [seeking His goodly acceptance], and bow down [before Him] and prostrate themselves in adoration, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and keep to the bounds set by God. And give you [O Prophet] the glad tiding [of God's promise] to all believers.
As per Quran and Hadith the characteristics of Muslims who kill and are killed in the way of Allah ﷻ are quite evident. They will definitely and without a doubt get many blessings in the hereafter. The example of such Muslims can be presently found Rohingya of Myanmar killed by extremist Buddhists, Muslims of Kashmir who are fighting the oppressing Indian Army for more than 70 years. Such example can be found in the innocent Palestinians who are fighting the Israeli oppressors or such as those of Afghanistan who are fighting the invaders.
What is the greatest desire of those martyred in the way of Allah ﷻ?
To the surprise of many the greatest desire of those who fight and are killed in the way of Allah ﷻ is actually not females but in fact something else and this is recorded as per authentic hadith:
".....that their souls (those who are killed in the way of Allah) are in green birds wandering in Paradise wherever they wish, returning to lamps hanging from the Throne. Your Lord looks at them and says: 'Do you want anything more that We may grant you more?' They say: 'Our Lord! What more could we have when we are in Paradise wandering wherever we want' Then He looks at them a second time and says: "Do you want anything more that We may grant you more?' When they realize that they will not be left alone with that, they say: 'Return our souls to our bodies, so that we may return to the world to be killed in Your cause another time.'" - This status of the martyrs shared by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ makes it absolutely clear that the greatest desire for martyrs killed in the way of Allah ﷻ is not women but in fact to be returned to earth and once again be killed for Allah's sake. This is due to the immense spiritual blessing that they receive at the point of their deaths that no other experience, even that of the enormously beautiful females of paradise can surpass it!
What do the martyrs killed in Allah’s path get in paradise?
There are a list of benefits in the authentic narrations that a martyr killed in the way of Allah ﷻ gets and these are blessings which we are thankful to Allah ﷻ: Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "There are six things with Allah for the martyr. He is forgiven with the first flow of blood (he suffers), he is shown his place in Paradise, he is protected from punishment in the grave, secured from the greatest terror, the crown of dignity is placed upon his head - and its gems are better than the world and what is in it - he is married to seventy two wives along Al-Huril-'Ayn of Paradise, and he may intercede for seventy of his close relatives." - Certain things need to be noted about this hadith: First, its not only wives from among the beautiful maidens of paradise that martyrs will get but its also the forgiveness, the great honor in the sight of Allah ﷻ which makes them desire to live again and fight for Allah’s sake. Additionally his life in grave and hereafter becomes peaceful and also the martyr will get to intercede for his loved ones on the judgment day through the honor that he may have achieved. Only a foolish Muslim who while believing in the hereafter would deny such blessings.
The main thing to learn is that the figure "seventy one" or "seventy two" or "seventy three" in Arabic language is not to teach us an exact figure, it is to be noted that the term "seven" or "seventy" in Arabic also means "several" or "multifold". Therefore what is being taught is not a figure but a blessings multiplied in terms of whatever the martyr will get which includes women of paradise!
Why do martyrs or paradise dwellers get so many wives and hoor al ayn (maidens of paradise) such as Seventy or more than Seventy?
The term seventy two or seventy is not just a mere accident of words, in fact it informs the Muslim believers about a great and beautiful fact about the gender ratio in paradise. The following authentic recorded hadith sheds light on this for us: Allah's Messenger ﷺ said, "The first group (of people) who will enter Paradise will be (glittering) like the moon when it is full…..Everyone of them will have two wives; the marrow of the bones of the wives' legs will be seen through the flesh out of excessive beauty..” - If every male believer gets 2 wives in paradise in addition to the number of hoor al ayn (paradise maidens) which number up to seventy or more than seventy for honored ones such as martyrs, then this clearly indicates that women are more in paradise than males. As per many famous Imams of the majority Ahle Sunnah (Sunni) school of thought the above hadith informs us that majority dwellers of paradise are women and therefore they will be naturally given to the males in paradise as they being women also desire males.
The Hoor Al Ayn (Maidens of paradise) also desire the Muslims just like Muslims desire them
The ahadith that speak about martyrs or male believers getting "beautiful maidens" does not mean in any way that females of paradise, whether from those of earth or from among the residents of paradise, are given away without their consent. An authentic hadith of the Prophet ﷺ clearly states that these maidens are longing to be with the believers every day and pray to Allah ﷻ for that communion: Messenger of Allah ﷺ said "Indeed in Paradise there is a gathering for Al-Hur Al-'Ein wherein they raise their voices. The creatures have not heard the likes of them." [He said:] "They say: 'We are the eternal ones, we shall not die. We are the ones who live in joy and comfort, we have no needs. We are the pleased ones, we do not get angry. Tuba (good news) to the one who belongs to us and we to him.'"
Last but not least its quite obvious that a man who died for Allah’s sake will get women in paradise due to him being a male and naturally a male desires a female. If Allah ﷻ wishes to give such martyrs beautiful women and paradise maidens who also desire their male counterpart, in addition to other unimaginable blessings, then who are we to question or show reservations? We gladly accept it!
May Allah ﷻ guide the apologetic Muslims who deny in their ignorance the blessings of their Deen.
 Jami Tirmidhi - Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3011
 Sahih al-Bukhari 3245
 Jami at-Tirmidhi 1663
 Jami at-Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 12, Hadith 2564