Introduction to the Quran –
Memorization & Preservation
Memorization & Preservation
The Quran was revealed in every Ramadaan in Night of Power/Destiny (Laylatul Qadr) for 23 years
The Quran was revealed in the month of Ramadaan in the night of Qadr (power) which majority of scholars concur happened on 27th of the Islamic holy month of Ramadaan or as few say, occurred on one of the last odd nights of Ramadaan, which are the holiest nights of this month. Firstly, the Quran confirms the fact that it was revealed in the month of Ramadaan: “It was in the month of Ramadan that the Quran was revealed as guidance for humankind, clear messages giving guidance and distinguishing between right and wrong.” Then Quran claims that it was revealed in one of the holiest nights called Laylatin Mubarakah (blessed night): “We sent it down on a blessed night… in which every firm decree is made distinct.” In another place, Allah ﷻ says He sent down the Quran on Laylatul Qadr (the night of power or destiny): “Behold, We revealed this (Qur'an) on the Night of Power.” Based on these verses of the Quran it is confirmed that revelation of the Quran began in Ramadaan and it was a blessed night called night of Qadr (power/destiny) in which the revelation was sent.
Before the Quran was revealed in this wonderful night in Ramadaan, it was already inscribed in Lawhal Mahfuz, the preserved tablet of Allah ﷻ where all matters have been preordained and predestined for His entire creation. This fact is also mentioned in the Quran and best translated as: “NAY, I call to witness the coming-down in parts [of this Qur'an - Mawaqi an Nujum] - and, behold, this is indeed a most solemn affirmation, if you but knew it! Behold, it (Quran) is a truly noble discourse, [conveyed to man] in a well-guarded divine writing (Lawhal Mahfuz) which none but the pure can touch: a revelation from the Sustainer of all the worlds!” Many English translators of the Quran, translate the term mawaqi an nujum as ‘positioning of the stars’, but some like Muhammad Asad on the authority of Ibn Abbas (r.a), prophet's foremost knowledgeable companion, said this term can also be defined as ‘the step-by-step revelation’ or ‘coming-down in parts’ in references to revelation of the Quran.
The Quran, already preserved in lawhal mahfuz, was first brought down to the lowest heaven i.e. the heaven above the earth and from there it continued to come down in parts within a period of twenty three years of Prophet’s ministry. This process for revelation of every verse from first heaven to earth was under the protection and delivery of Allah’s angels and that is meant by the words: “none but the pure can touch (Al Quran 56:79).” As recorded in the hadith literature Ibn Abbas (r.a) explained this process in the following words: “The Quran was sent down all at once to the heaven of this world, and then God, Exalted is He, sent it down to the Prophet ﷺ in installments of five verses at a time, or more or less than this’. He has said, Glorified and Exalted is He: ‘(Al Quran 56:75–77) Nay, I swear by the setting places of the stars! — And that is indeed a tremendous oath, if you but knew — This is indeed a noble Quran’. The Quran did not come down in one month or two, nor in a year or two; the time between the first revelation and the last was twenty years, or as [many] as God willed.”
Shaikh Abdul Qadir Gilani (r.a) elaborates in his work Al Ghunya al Talibeen on the description given by Ibn Abbas (r.a), how revelation began and completed within 23 year period on this same night of Qadr (Laylatul Qadr - night of power) in the same month of Ramadaan: “Allah ﷻ sent it down from the Well-Kept Tablet [al law al mahfuz] to the heaven of this lower world—to the Scribes [as-Safara], they being the clerks or secretaries among the angels. It would thus come down on that particular night, from the Tablet, to the extent that Archangel Gabriel (a.s) was to reveal it—with the permission of Allah ﷻ —to the Prophet ﷺ in the course of the whole year. The same procedure would then be applied in each subsequent year, until the entire Quran had come down, on the Night of Power [Lailat al-Qadr] in the month of Ramadaan, to the heaven of this lower world.” Hence a portion of the Quran would be brought down from the highest heaven to the lowest, every year in Ramadaan in the night of Qadr (power/destiny), and that portion would subsequently be revealed throughout the year till the next night of Qadr, till completion of the Quran.
 Al Quran 2:185
 Al Quran 44:3-4
 Al Quran 97:1
 Al Quran 56:75–80
 Al-Tustari, Sahl bin Abdullah. 2011. Tafsir al-Tustari. Amman: Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought - (Al-Tustari 2011)
 Jilani, Sayyid Abd al-Qadir. n.d. "Seventh Discourse ." In Ghunya al-Talibeen, by Sayyid Abd al-Qadir Jilani. As-Sunnah Foundation of America - (Jilani n.d.)
How was Quran compiled in to a standard text?
The Quran was revealed in the classical Arabic text almost 15 centuries back and the present text found in modern copies of the Quran is the same as that original text. The only difference between the original and subsequent texts is the addition of vowels & diacritical marks (i'jam, tashkeel), that were added in the later copies for non-Arabs to recite each word correctly. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ memorized the original text himself (in the Qurayshi dialect) and also made his companions. After the Prophet's passing away, Islam gradually spread throughout the region and accepted new people in to its fold. When new people entered Islam during the Rashidun Caliphate i.e. the rule of first 4 successors of the Prophet namely Abu Bakr (r.a), Umar (r.a), Uthman (r.a) and Ali (r.a), the prophet's companions spread to these different regions to teach and instruct them about the Quran. This resulted in each region holding on to its own recitation style they had learned from each companion and earlier Muslims.
During the rule of Prophet's third successor Uthman ibn Affan (r.a), variant readings and recitations of the Quran (based on dialects of other Arab tribes) were being followed in different parts of the Muslim world. For further clarity please read Background of 7 Ahruf (Dialects) of the Quran. This practice carried the potential of a major sedition among the Muslims. Every part of the Muslim world proudly held to their own style of Quranic recitation and looked upon other variants as lesser. A Prophet’s companion named Hudhayfa (r.a) once campaigned with the people of Iraq and al-Sham (greater Syria) in Armenia, the Muslims contended in a reprehensible manner with each other in regards to the Quran. Hudhayfa (r.a) came to Uthman (r.a) and told him: “O Commander of the Believers, rescue this Community before they differ in the Quran the way Christians and Jews differed in the Books.” Many huffaz (those who had learnt the Quran by heart) died in the battle of Yamama which took place during the Abu Bakr's rule (r.a). It was felt necessary that the Quran should be compiled in a book format so it does not get lost with time. A compilation was thus prepared in the Qurayshi dialect, and it was called Mushaf. During Abu Bakr's rule this compilation was kept in the custody of Ayesha (r.a), the beloved wife of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. During the caliphate of Umar (r.a) this compilation was kept in the custody of his daughter Hafsa (r.a), also another wife of the Prophet ﷺ. After hearing what Hudhayfa (r.a) experienced Uthman (r.a) was alarmed and sent word to Hafsa (r.a). To prevent this issue from further escalation, Uthman (r.a) with the support and consultation of the Companions of the Prophet ﷺ decided to introduce a unified text based on the copy with Hafsa (r.a).
Uthman, ordered that a number of copies should be made from this to be distributed to different parts of the Muslim world as the official copy of the Quran, which became known as the Uthmanic Codex or Uthmanic Quran. All previous copies in use in the various parts of the Muslim dominions were collected and burnt. The Uthamic codex has been recognized throughout the Muslim world for the last fourteen centuries as the authentic document of the Quran as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
Why did Caliph Uthman burn the variant readings of Quran?
The fact that Uthman (r.a) burned the variant readings of the Quran was to protect the unity of the Muslims by assisting them to follow a unified text. During Uthman's rule, bout 12 years after the passing away of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, as Islam spread throughout the region variant readings of the Quran were being followed in different parts of the Muslim world. These were going to become a cause of a major disunity and so to prevent this from happening Uthman (r.a) along with some of the most prominent companions of the Prophet ﷺ decided to issue single standard text for all Muslims to follow. The decision involved companions such as Zaid bin Thabit (r.a), Abdullah bin Zubair (r.a), Saeed bin Al Aas (r.a) and Abdur Rahman bin Al Harith (r.a). This Committee was commissioned to prepare an authorized text whose members had memorized the Quran directly from the Prophet ﷺ. Copies of this edition were prepared and supplied to all parts of the dominions. All previous copies in use in the various parts of the Muslim dominions were collected and burnt.
Therefore, the decision that Uthman (r.a) took for standardization of the Quran was mutually decided that comprised several of the most honorable companions. They decided their affairs through mutual consultation as prescribed by the Quran (42:38). In a prophetic hadith we have been informed: “majority of my Ummah (nation i.e. Muslims) will never agree on an error.” The decision of Uthman (r.a) has been endorsed by majority of Muslims and Islamic scholars throughout the history regardless of their school or sect affiliation. Even after the passage of fifteen centuries the various copies of the standard text available throughout the globe have no major differences except for the minor difference of vowels which do not affect the meaning. In fact the decision made under Uthman's leadership bears testimony to the promise of Allah ﷻ to protect the Quran till the Day of Judgment: “We have sent down the dhikr (Quran) Ourself, and We Ourself will guard it.” .
At this point it is also important to mention that there are allegations that Shia Muslims do not believe in the uniformity of text and that they believe the Quran to be distorted. These are false and their mainstream scholars have clearly rejected this notion which is based on some extremely inauthentic traditions found in their books. Muhammad Baqir Ansari, one of the Shia writers, explains the Shia view in his article ‘Tahrif al-Qur'an: A Study of Misconceptions Regarding Corruption of the Qur'anic Text’: “At present, the antiquated hand-written manuscripts of the Holy Qur'an by the Shi'ah from the early days of Islam until now are kept in museums of Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, etc. Some of these manuscripts are, once in a while, precisely reprinted in the same form and exposed to public view. Those who entertain the slightest doubt concerning this matter can personally refer to these manuscripts. In the museum of the Qur'an in the holy city of Mashhad, I have personally seen some copies of the Holy Qur'an written on parchment made of deer skin. The period of writing of these copies of Qur'an dates back to more than one thousand years. Some of them are attributed to Imam Ali (A), al-Imam al-Sajjad (the fourth Imam), and some others are attributed to other Imams, Shi'ah Ulama and pious men. Similarly, in other museums and libraries, there are also some copies of the Qur'an which are very ancient, but so far no one has been able to claim that even a single word of these manuscripts of the Qur'an differs from what is now available to the Shi'ah and to the Muslims of the world.”
 al-Dhahabi, Abu Nuaym &. n.d. The Four Khalifas - Uthman ibn Affan (r.a). Accessed March 27, 2019. http://www.sunnah.org/publication/khulafa_rashideen/caliph3.htm - (al-Dhahabi n.d.)
 Part of the apostasy campaign during Abu Bakr (r.a) caliphate, the first successor of the Prophet. Please refer to Question # in chapter 3.
 Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. 2004. The Qur'an . New York: Oxford University Press Inc. - (Haleem 2004)
 Sunan Abi Dawud 4253 – Sunnah.com
 Al Quran 15:09
 Ansari, Muhammad Baqir. 2019. "Tahrif al-Qur'an: A Study of Misconceptions Regarding Corruption of the Qur'anic Text." Al Tawhid Vol 4 N.4 - (Ansari 2019)
What is Law Al Mahfuz?
Law Al Mahfuz i.e. The Preserved Tablet of Allah ﷻ lies on His Arsh (Throne) and all that is going to happen, from the point of creation was penned in to it including the Quran. Since this tablet existed before creation therefore Quran existed before creation. Quran is also the speech of Allah ﷻ and His speech is one of His Attributes like His Knowledge (99 names) which is Pre-eternal. The original Quran is inscribed in the preserved tablet which is on the Arsh (Throne) of Allah ﷻ: “This is truly a glorious Quran. (Recorded) in the Preserved Tablet (Law Al Mahfuz).”
How Allah ﷻ preserves the Quran?
From the Heavenly Tablet, the Quran was inscribed on the heart of the Prophet ﷺ who then transmitted to his companions on whose hearts it got inscribed. They in turn transmitted and inscribed it on the hearts of their students who then inscribed on the hearts of their students and so from generation to generation each word of the Quran has been transmitted and inscribed on the hearts of the millions up till our times. There are millions of Islamic students on whose hearts these verses are inscribed today even though a majority of them are non-Arabs and many do not even understand the Arabic meanings yet they carry this Quran in their hearts! For instance if we can assume that not a single copy of the Quran in a book form was left on earth even then it can be transmitted on papers immediately by those millions who carry it in their hearts. And all of this takes place simply due to the fact that it is “(Recorded) in the Preserved Tablet (Al Quran 85:22)”. Hence it is because of this divine order of its preservation is why the Quran remains unchanged even after the passage of almost 15 centuries.
Some people may ask "where is the original or first copy of the Quran?" If one can understand this miraculous fact about the Quran then the question of "where" being the first copy becomes meaningless! The Quran was revealed to a people who were ummi meaning "unlettered": “He it is who has sent to the unlettered (ummi) people a messenger from among themselves, to convey to them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity…” The reading and writing was not very common in the pre-Islamic Arabian society that heavily depended on memorization method to learn and transmit knowledge. Thus, after Islam came, memorization became part of the Islamic tradition. Due to this tradition Quran is continuously being memorized and transmitted from generation to generation till our times and that is what keeps its original form preserved in addition to the fact that copies of the original text also exist from the time of the Prophet ﷺ.
 Al Quran 85:21–22
 Al Quran 62:2
Why Allah ﷻ chose to reveal Quran in the Arabic Language?
Linguists claim that no language can remain intact for more than five hundred years and that if efforts are not made to preserve them, with passage of time languages die. Such is quite evident when we compare today's English with the original Shakespearean English. There’s obviously a huge difference because languages get impacted by changes with time. For instance the native languages spoken in the American continent were heavily influenced by Spanish and Portuguese, after the Europeans colonized the continent. Those native languages still exist but their original words are forgotten and replaced with Spanish or Portuguese words. Many of these languages have even gone extinct in past several years. There's a New York Times article from year 2007 that mentions: “Of the estimated 7,000 languages spoken in the world today, linguists say, nearly half are in danger of extinction and are likely to disappear in this century. In fact, they are now falling out of use at a rate of about one every two weeks. At a teleconference with reporters today, K. David Harrison, an assistant professor of linguistics at Swarthmore College, said that more than half of the languages have no written form and are “vulnerable to loss and being forgotten.” When they disappear, they leave behind no dictionary, no text, no record of the accumulated knowledge and history of a vanished culture.”
However this is not the case with classical Arabic, I use the word "classical" because this language has amazingly survived from the ancient times till today. Even though being an ancient language, classical Arabic is still intact and any person who becomes learned in the Arabic language can easily read, ponder over the depth of this language and appreciate its richness and beauty. It is said that no other language has the ability to translate classical Arabic because ancient languages that may be as old and as rich as Arabic are becoming extinct and modern languages are continuously evolving. The modern languages such as English, Spanish, French, that are lingua franca (international languages) remain underdeveloped to have the exact quality as that of classical languages. Hence modern languages are not at par with classical language such as Arabic.
What is more important to note is that modern Arabic spoken in the mainstream does not reflect the same quality and influence as the classic one and that is because what sustains a language’s authenticity is also culture in which it was born and sustained. The modern capitals of the Arabic world are influenced by globalization culture especially with the evolution of technology and usage of internet. What keeps classical Arabic still strong are two factors: the isolated Bedouin culture that remains disconnected from mainstream or it is primarily due to The Quran! The miraculous survival of the Arabic is mainly due to the Quran because Quran is still available in its original form and hasn't experienced any changes in almost fifteen centuries. It is the most widely read book in the world today because millions have memorized it unlike any book on earth, and millions pray 5 times a day and Quran recitation is part of those daily prayers. This is in addition to the study of its language which is also part of the many of those who memorize and study Islam. The Arabic linguists can still learn this language and also indulge in deeper study of the text and each word preserved in the Quran. It is this reason why Allah ﷻ chose to reveal the Quran in ancient Arabic and chose it to communicate with His beloved Prophet ﷺ and entire humankind. In the light of these facts about classical Arabic we may understand why Allah ﷻ chose this language to reveal His final message for humankind. In fact due to being divinely preserved in the Quran, it is made available for the fairly modern and developing languages (English, French, other languages) to translate its words to extent of their own limitations and clearly understand its message. This is a divine promise: “Behold, it is We Ourselves who have bestowed from on high, step by step, this reminder (Quran) and, behold, it is We who shall truly guard it [from all corruption].” “…and [this] in order that you may warn the foremost of all cities (Makkah) and all who dwell around it (i.e. the entire humankind).”
 World’s Languages Dying Off Rapidly, The New York Times, By John Noble Wilford
Sept. 18, 2007 - https://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/18/world/18cnd-language.html?mtrref=undefined&gwh=144EB198E84C1F26A63FE9D46D0EBB4C&gwt=pay&assetType=REGIWALL
 Al Quran 15:09
 Al Quran 6:92
Why was the Quran recited in 7 dialects?
The tribes at the time of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did not speak Arabic in the same ahruf (dialect). Many tribes had different ways of reciting Arabic words and Quran addressed them in their individual dialects while at the same time delivering the same message. This was one of the literary and linguistic miracles of this book for Arabic speakers who received in the first instance. Hence the following authentic hadith mentions the satisfaction displayed by the Prophet ﷺ after hearing that Allah ﷻ permitted the Quran to be recited in seven dialects. It is recorded in Sahih of Imam Muslim that Ubayy b. Kaab reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was near the tank of Banu Ghifar that Archangel Gabriel (alaihi salaam) came to him and said: "Allah has commanded you to recite to your people the Quran in one dialect." Upon this he said "I ask from Allah pardon and forgiveness. My people are not capable of doing it." He then came for the second time and said "Allah has commanded you that you should recite the Quran to your people in two dialects." Upon this he (the Holy prophet) again said "I seek pardon and forgiveness from Allah, my people would not be able to do so." He (Gabriel) came for the third time and said "Allah has commanded you to recite the Quran to your people in three dialects." Upon this he said "I ask pardon and forgiveness from Allah. My people would not be able to do it." He then came to him for the fourth time and said "Allah has commanded you to recite the Quran to your people in seven dialects, and in whichever dialect they would recite, they would be right."
It is said that these 7 dialects (ahruf) belong to the following seven tribes: Quraysh, Hudhayl, Thaqeef, Hawaazin, Kinaanah, Tameem and a tribe of Yemen. The wisdom behind this was that the Quran in seven different dialects made its recitation and memorization much easier for the local tribes. After the passing away of the Prophet ﷺ, Islam spread to other regions including non-Arabs and these dialects also came to be spread due to the fact that his companions who recited them went to different regions to teach and instruct the new Muslims. Each region adopted a style of recitation based on a dialect (harf) that the companion recited in. During the rule of Uthman ibn Affan (r.a) he received news that Muslims around the Islamic empire were contending on whose recitation was better. Uthman (r.a) then decided to take measures. By his time the various Quranic dialects had ceased to be of their initial importance. He aimed to eliminate the variant styles of readings (qira’at) which had the potential to cause permanent divisions. He compiled a standardized text which was based on the original Qurayshi dialect (harf), the dialect in which the Quran was revealed to the Prophet ﷺ and which he recited himself. Uthman (r.a) ordered the distribution of this text to the major centers of the Islamic empire. Muslims were encouraged to read this standard edition which did not omit anything from what they were exchanging except for a recitation style. Even though a standard edition was collected and spread across Muslim region and others were collected and burned, that did not affect the original text and their meanings because nothing was omitted from it. Therefore these dialects were the need of the time and environment in which the Quran was being revealed but as Islam spread outside of Arabian Peninsula, they ceased to be of much importance as later Muslims did not have concerns like their early predecessors.
An example for illustration
The above can be understood better if we compare it with change in the writing style of Quran. Just as the change in recitation styles based on earlier dialects (ahruf) did not impact the meaning of the Quranic words, the writing style of the Quran too evolved yet did not change the meaning. By comparing a page from the earliest scripts of the Quran going back 14 centuries with the same section from a modern printed edition clearly shows a huge difference in writing style with absolutely no difference in meaning. Such as the following:
A comparison of a section from modern Quran version (Al Quran 20:1-5) with old fragments in Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham dating back to period between 568 and 645 CE:
As you may notice that the diacritical marks (tashkeel) were added by later generations to make recitation more easier and simpler for them and subsequent generations yet according to all experts the meaning and words of the Quran still remain unchanged. Any modern expert in Arabic would have much difficulty in reading the old manuscript writing. However the experts who know how to read and understand old manuscript know what it says.
At this point it is important to address a concern usually raised by outright critics of Islam that Quran must have been changed due to burning of the remaining dialects. Even though their claim of burning is correct yet they have failed to produce any evidence that the original text and its meaning was changed due to burning. So far they quote the earlier mentioned hadith of seven dialects and claim that there were "seven Qurans" and now only one is left, implying possibility of more than one Quran, which is obviously false. Secondly, they repeatedly mention Uthman’s burning as if he wanted to burn for sake of making changes, which is again, obviously, a false allegation.
 Sunnah.com - Sahih Muslim 821 a
 'Oldest' Koran fragments found in Birmingham University, BBC News, By Sean Coughlan, Education correspondent, Published 22 July 2015 - https://www.bbc.com/news/business-33436021
Naskh means Abrogation or Cancellation. There is difference between the concept of Naskh (Abrogation) of the commandments in the Quran vs Naskh (abrogation) of some verses, meaning part of revelation of the Quran. The former are actually the commandments in the Quran addressed at different times during the 23-year time of Quran’s revelation. Some commandments abrogated the others and there is proof for us in the Quran and the Hadith for that. However, there is no proof for the latter type of Naskh (abrogation) i.e. some ayahs (verses) that were initially part of the Quran but were later cancelled and removed permanently. Unfortunately, this latter concept has come to be formed because of some ahadith recorded in the books of tradition that mention its taking place, which I have mentioned below. The fact however is that entire Quran with all its ayahs (verses) were collected at the time of its revelation by the Prophet ﷺ and his companions and nothing is missing from it.
Naskh (Abrogation) of the commandments in the Quran
There are many instances when commandments in the Quran were either replaced by other commandments or revealed to further explain the existing ones. For instance in the following verses on fasting, the commandment was understood by the Prophet’s companions to either fast or feed poor persons: “Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).”Imam ibn Kathir comments in his Tafsir based on narrations of several companions that when 2:184 was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2:185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah: “…So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up.” The companions at first used to feed poor persons instead of fasting in lieu of 2:184 but when 2:185 was revealed it abrogated that concession and the command of 2:184 was now only limited to those who are old, sick or on a journey and therefore unable to fast. In this instance, the command was abrogated, meaning it was made more explanatory by adding exceptions. Such instance is an abrogation of commandments that Quran is replete with and numerous ahadith testify to this fact. In another instance, the following alcohol verse was revealed during Muslims early stages of learning and practicing Islam, prohibiting them from approaching the prayer while drunk: “O you who believe! do not go near prayer when you are Intoxicated until you know (well) what you say…” It is well known that many among the Companions were alcoholics and when the time of prayer was due they would join and perform in a drunken state. Therefore, the verse was revealed to prevent them from doing so yet did not put a complete prohibition on the act of drinking. After sometime, another revelation came down declaring complete prohibition on the act: “O you who believe, intoxicants and gambling, idolatrous practices, and [divining with] arrows are repugnant acts- Satan’s doing- shun them so that you may prosper.” Due to 5:90 the complete prohibition of alcohol went in to effect and it abrogated the rule in 4:43. However it’s also best to mention that a minority of Islamic scholars declare that 4:43 is still valid for those who are strong addicts and it’s very difficult for them to quit (in need to join a rehabilitation center) therefore Allah gives them a chance as he did to the Companions of the Prophet ﷺ.
Naskh (Abrogation) of the Quran verses
As for the abrogation of the verses meaning that there were verses initially part of the Quran, but have been cancelled (Naskh) and completely removed is unfortunately a misconception about the Quran. First, the divine promise of Allah ﷻ says that no one can change His words: “And recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord. There is no changer of His words, and never will you find in other than Him a refuge.” When referring to this Book i.e. the Holy Quran, Allah ﷻ makes it clear that no changes can take place in regards to His divine speech unless He Himself wills it. Therefore, many Muslim Scholars believe that no words of the Quran revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ were ever permanently abrogated later. The following verse specifically touches on the subject of Abrogation and used as evidence by those who argue in favor of verses being abrogated: “Any Ayah (verse or message) which We cancel, abrogate, or cause to be forgotten (Naskh), We replace with a better or a similar one. Do you not know that Allah has the power over all things?” 2:106 was revealed against the background of 2:105 which mentions that the disbelievers amongst the Jews and Christians do not accept that a new revelation can be send in addition to their’s. To which Allah replied in 2:106 that He has the power to replace the previous message with a new one. The word that Allah ﷻ used in 2:106 for 'Message' or 'Revelation' in Arabic is Ayah, which many of the translators and commentators have translated as 'Verse'. Taking this restricted meaning of the term Ayah, some scholars concluded from the above passage that certain commandments of the Quran have been permanently abrogated by others or certain verses, initially part of the book, may have been completely removed by God's command. The truth is that Naskh (i.e., cancellation/abrogation of an Ayah) did not apply internally to verses of the Quran, but, rather, externally to certain previous divine revelations. There does not
exist a single reliable Tradition to the effect that the Prophet ever, declared a verse of the Quran to have been "abrogated". As for the ahadith found in the books that mention about verses that were part of the Quran and are no more are only the words of his companions. For instance, the following is narrated from Umar (r.a) who said: “…Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Messenger did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,' and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed…” This apparent confusion of a “missing verse” can also be removed if we notice that it is only a miracle that Quran remains the same around the world with its meaning unchanged for the past almost 15 centuries. Having said that it is Allah ﷻ who in His divine wisdom decided to keep whatever becomes part of the Quran and what does not. Angel Gabriel (alaihi salaam) recited the Quran with the Prophet ﷺ every year and made him memorize which he in turn memorized to his companions: "We will teach you, and you will not forget [anything of what you are taught], except what Allah may will [you to forget]..." The verses of Rajam or others, may have existed but were never chosen to become part of the Quran to begin with. As per Islamic scholars, the verse of the Rajam is not included in the recitation of the Quran but its ruling as a law remains effective. Hence, what initially never became part of the Quran cannot alleged to be “later removed” or “cancelled” by the Companions or subsequent generations.
 Al Quran 2:184
 Al Quran 2:185
 Al Quran 4:43
 Al Quran 5:90
 Al Quran 18:27
 Al Quran 2:106
 Sahih Al Bukhari - Vol. 8, Book 82, Hadith 817 – Sunnah.com
 Al Quran 87:6-7) - Asad Translation
Why previous revelations could not be preserved but the Quran has successfully remained unchanged?
There is a big difference between the previously revealed scriptures by Allah ﷻ such as Gospel, Torah as well as non-Biblical scriptures vs His Divine Speech in the Quran. The former were spiritual divine messages revealed to the Messengers from the unseen world and they translated those (spiritual divine) messages in to their local language and delivered to the people. Their followers collected those teachings in to book formats to recite for themselves and preserved them for subsequent generations. This is the meaning of the following verse: “We have never sent a messenger who did not use his own people’s language to make things clear for them.” Those Prophets & Messengers used their own words to explain Allah’s message.
However with time the previous texts of Bible and similar books got corrupted because the human languages, in which they were copied, could not sustain against corruption for a long time. Not to forget the fact that Bible has also been lost and rewritten (from people’s memory, whatever they could remember) due to the dramatic events that happened in Israeli history. As per linguists no language can sustain corruption for more than 500 years. With time, a nation's culture and language are bound to get corrupted and changed, for e.g. modern English vs Shakespearean English, a huge difference. But Allah’s divine words and speech called Kalaam-e-ilahi can never be changed. The previous books did not contain divine words of Allah ﷻ. Hence the difference between the previous scriptures and the final revelation called Quran is the fact that Quran is not only revealed in the language spoken by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ but that it is also a Divine Speech of Allah ﷻ. Allah ﷻ actually conversated in classical Arabic. Due to this Quran teaches: “This is truly a glorious Quran. (Recorded) in the Preserved Tablet (Law Al Mahfuz).” Law Al Mahfuz i.e. The Preserved Tablet of Allah ﷻ that lies on His Arsh (Throne) and all that is going to happen, from the time when creation came in to being was penned in to it, including the Quran. Since this tablet existed before creation therefore Quran existed before creation. Quran is also the speech of Allah ﷻ and His speech is one of His Attributes like His Knowledge (99 names) which is Pre-eternal. Also Allah ﷻ said: "...There is none who can change His words..." i.e. He will protect His divine speech in which He spoke and delivered the final message, and that is why Quran successfully remains unchanged despite passage of almost 15 centuries.
What can be compared in Islam to the previous scriptures is what we call Hadith e Qudsi (Sacred Traditions). Hadith e Qudsi (sacred traditions) are found in hadith literature and are at par with the wording of Gospel & Torah and the words founds in similar books. Apart from Quran, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ also delivered divine messages from Allah ﷻ which he interpreted in his own words to explain, and his followers copied them like they would copy & memorize the Quran. These messages were called Hadith Qudsi (Sacred Traditions). Hadith Qudsi differ from the Quran in that the former are expressed in Prophet Muhammad's words, whereas the latter are the direct words or divine speech of Allah ﷻ. Hence what the previous Prophets/Messengers delivered from Allah ﷻ were similar to what we call Hadith Qudsi, which were divine messages translated in to the wording of their local language but not divine speech of Allah ﷻ.
 Al Quran 14:04
 Al Quran 85:21–22
 Al Quran 18:27
Originally published on 7/12/20 on Quora and can be accessed here.
It is true that Quran carries many words that are similar to Persian sounding words which led towards the belief by many that Quran may have borrowed those words from Persian language and Arabicized them. Apparently this may sound true when comparing those words between Arabic and Persian but when one researches deeper in to this matter, its revealed that it actually, may be Persian language and culture that borrowed Arabic terms and Persianized them, and not the other way around. Below are discussed some of the famous Arabic terms in the Quran that are also found in Persian language.
The word “paradise” comes from Greek parádeisos which originates in Persian from Avestan (Zoroastrian scripture) pairidaēza meaning “enclosure, park”. It is commonly understood that Al Firdaws (Al Quran 23:11 and 18:92), the highest place in Jannah which contains everything, is Arabicized form of pairidaēza. But there is a disagreement among Islamic scholars from early Islam that Quran contains any Arabicized words, they claim all words are originally Arabic. This may be true of Al Firdaws also because paradise is actually called Jannah in Quran and then you have other grades called Al Khuld, illiyyin etc. So Quran refers to each place in paradise with a term based on the honor and pleasures, entertainment etc and Al Firdaws is one of them. Another term in Quran hijarah min sijjil (Al Quran 11:82) meaning “stones of burned or dried clay” where sijjil meaning “baked or burned clay” is said to have come from Persian sangi gil which means "clay-stone" or "petrified clay" however sijjil is not only “dried clay” or “burned clay” but sijjilun in Arabic also means "a writing", and secondarily, "something that has been decreed" and hijarah min sijjil can mean “stones that are decisively decreed” as a punishment to Prophet Lot’s (Lut) people, and sangi gil does not have a vast meaning. At another place Quran mentions the word matar (Al Quran 26:173) meaning “rained upon them” where matar is a rain of punishment as opposed to rain called rahma (mercy) in other places in the Quran, for Lot’s people, as a punishment in reference to the lava stones or stones that rained on them. The term sundus (Al Quran 18:31) meaning “silk” in reference to garments of jannah (paradise) is also claimed to be of Persian origin. However, Quran does not only use that word but also uses the term istabraq (Al Quran 18:31) and hareer (Al Quran 22:23) for “silk” garments. These points are sufficient to doubt the fact that Quran borrowed Persian terms, in fact this points us that due to the large variety of Arabic terms that carry similar meaning, it may be that some were Persianized and used in Persian culture.
Muhammad Asad - Message of the Quran - Chapter 98
Paradise | Definition of Paradise by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of Paradise
AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES