Malaikah (Angels) & Jinns (Invisible Beings)
Angels and their creation
The Quran teaches that angels are one of the creations of Allah ﷻ like humankind and jinns but they do not have a free will like the latter two. Allah ﷻ informs us that they do as they are told: (Al Quran 16:49-50) every beast that moves, and the angels: [even] these do not bear themselves with false pride: they fear their Sustainer high above them, and do whatever they are bidden to do - Elsewhere in the Quran it is mentioned they never neglect the duties assigned to them (Al Quran 6:62) unlike humans and jinns who can disobey. One of the prophetic hadith defines their creation: “The angels were created from nur (light), the jinn from smokeless fire, and Adam from what was described to you (i.e. in the Quran).” 
Nur in Arabic means ‘light’, however; this light is not the same that is observable through a naked eye. It could be a very subtle or concentrated form of light, which cannot be grasped by our normal sense of sight. In the Quran and Prophetic hadith, the angels are referred to with the Arabic term malaikah, which is plural for "many angels", while malak is a singular angel and is related to similar term in Arabic called maalik which means "king" or "sultan" implying authority and power or energy. In addition to their creation from a form of nur (light) we can assume that they might be created from a subtle form of energy that moves within the electromagnetic spectrum within our universe. It may be that they belong to a frequency within this spectrum, which cannot be detected using our normal sense perceptions. For instance, birds can view the ultra violet rays, an electromagnetic radiation, within the sunlight, which are not visible to human eyes, due to special receptors carried by birds. Knowing the special ability of theirs, we can understand the prophetic hadith that teaches angelic presence is felt by birds: “When you hear the crowing of the roosters, then ask Allah of His bounty, for verily they have seen an angel. When you hear the braying of a donkey, then seek refuge in Allah from shaitan, [satan the rejected] for, verily, it has seen a Shaitan (a jinn devil).”  Just as exposure to UV-rays at an intense frequency can cause humans to experience Photokeratitis, a painful eye condition, it explains why angels remain invisible to us in their normal frequency mode while in a stronger frequency their appearance may cause us harm. This may explain the fact that one day Hamza ibn Abdul Mutalib (radiAllahu anhu) asked Allah’s Messenger ﷺ that he wanted to see Archangel Jibraeel (Gabriel) (alaihi salaam). The Messenger ﷺ pointed towards the Kaabah, but Hamza (r.a) could not bear the sight and fell unconscious.
 Riyad as-Saliheen Book 19, Hadith 39
 It is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and particles.
 Jami at-Tirmidhi 3459
 The paternal uncle of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, was martyred in the Battle of Uhud.
 Shifa, 1:362; Suyuti, al-Khasais al-Kubra 1:311 - Nursi 2010
Angels and their travels
Allah ﷻ says in the Quran: : (Al Quran 35:01) ALL PRAISE is due to God, Originator of the heavens and the earth, who causes the angels to be [His] message-bearers, endowed with wings, two, or three, or four - According to Quran commentators, the number of wings denotes their power and speed by which they engage in working at Allah’s command throughout the universe. Light is defined as any radiation within electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays including visible light, all forms of radiations move approximately at the rate of 186,000 miles/second. Such is the speed of discovered frequencies. As explained in the creation of angels earlier, if we accept that angels are created from a concentrated form of nur (light) whose frequency remains undiscovered or yet incomprehensible then we can imagine their ability to traverse billions of years or light years distance. The Quran mentions their ability to travel such unimaginable distances in a very short period of time: (Al Quran 70:04) all the angels and Ruh [Archangel Gabriel)] ascend to Him [daily,] in a day the length whereof is [like] fifty thousand years - The term "fifty thousand" is not literal but implies extremely long distance. This theory may also explain the hadith when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ saw Archangel Gabriel, the leader of all angels, in his original form and claimed that: “he had six-hundred wings which filled the horizon.” 
 Jami at-Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3278
Nur (light) - Source of Energy for Angels and Believers
Recent scientific discoveries talk about Biophotons - photons (particles) of light or radiation emitting from human bodies at extremely low visible frequency invisible to our sight. Islam teaches that angels, energetic beings made of nur (light or energy), get attracted to us spiritually if we remain physically and internally (our intentions) pure. Practicing Islam helps us achieve both states. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ informed us that angels are very sensitive to smells unbearable to humans such as those of garlic and onions: “He who eats of this offensive plant (onions/garlic) must not approach our mosque, for the angels are harmed by the same things as men.” He never forbade Muslims but advised them to cook onions and garlic thoroughly before consuming for it loses the strong odor. Whatever apprehends humans also apprehends angels therefore Prophet ﷺ also advised Muslims to cleanse their mouth before engaging in worship: “When any one of you stand at night to offer Salah, you should clean your teeth with a miswak (wooden tooth stick) because when you recite the Quran, an angel places his mouth on yours and anything coming out of your mouth enters the mouth of that angel.” The spiritual moments experienced during our worship and meditation becomes their sustenance. We are also informed in a prophetic hadith, that angels seek zikr gatherings and become joyful as zikr is their and our source of energy: “Allah, the Exalted, has teams of angels who go about on the roads seeking those who remember Allah. When they find some people remembering Allah they call to one another and say, ‘Come to what you are hungry for;’ and they surround them with their wings until the space between them and the lowest sky is fully covered.” This is one of many spiritual ways in which Allah ﷻ keeps angels joined with the believers for the sake of their protection and guidance.
An interesting definition of our ruh (soul) comes from a one of the most prominent and influential 9th century CE philosopher, mystic, scholar named Imam Ghazali (latinized Algazel). He mentions in his famous work Ihya Ulum-id-din: "Ruh has got 2 meanings. First meaning is material thing within the heart which vibrates the whole body like the current of electricity running through veins of the body called ‘life’. It has the power of touch, hearing, sight, smell and the power of the other limbs of the body. It is just like a radiation of light of a lighted lamp. The second meaning is the immaterial thing called latifa or subtle element which has got connection with the material soul.” There is a chance that our material ruh is likely the source of recently discovered radiation emission from human body called biophotons. Further research has given scientists the clue that these particles may be playing a role in cellular communication inside our body. Biophoton may be part of neuron activity in the brain that sends and receives signals resulting in movement of our muscles and body exactly as the 9th century Imam stated. He also states that at the subtle level this material soul is connected to the spiritual world through the medium of our hearts. This may explain why hearts of the believers find rest in Allah's remembrance: (Al Quran 13:28) truly it is in the zikr (remembrance) of God that hearts find peace. - Allah's worship and obedience are angelic characteristics and key factors that attract angelic presence as well as our connection with spiritual world, hence the Prophet ﷺ said: "No people sit in a gathering remembering Allah, but angels surround them, mercy covers them, tranquility descends upon them and Allah remembers them before those who are with Him."  Quran also brings our attention to soul's evil impulses: (Al Quran 12:53) ...very soul incites him to evil unless my Lord shows mercy. - These also come from (jinn) devils hence Quran says: (Al Quran 7:201) If Satan should prompt you to do something, seek refuge with God.
 Vol. 4, Book 29, Hadith 3363 – Sunan Ibn Majah
 Sahih Muslim 563
 Shu'ab al-Iman, Vol. 2, Page 381, Hadith 2117
 Book 16, Hadith 40 – Riyad us-saliheen
 Ghazzali 1993
 Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 33, Hadith 3791
 Al Quran 12:53
 Al Quran 7:201
Angelic influence shaping human destinies
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ stated: "(A group of) angels stay with you at night and (another group of) angels by daytime, and both groups gather at the time of the 'Asr (late afternoon) and Fajr (before sunrise) prayers. Then those angels who have stayed with you overnight, ascend (to Heaven) and Allah asks them (about you) ---- and He knows everything about you. ‘In what state did you leave My servants?' The angels reply, ‘when we left them, they were praying, and when we reached them they were praying.'" Actions of an entire nation is presented before Allah ﷻ, Who decides their destiny whether fortunate or unfortunate and if decisions made for them implemented immediately or gradually. He also said that prayers of the highest and lowest levels of angels intercede in the court of Allah ﷻ for our forgiveness and mercy in this world and hereafter: “Those [highest angels] who carry the Throne and those who surround it celebrate the praise of their Lord and have faith in Him. They beg forgiveness for the believers: “Our Lord, You embrace all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who turn to You and follow Your path. Save them from the pains of Hell and admit them, Lord, to the lasting Gardens You have promised to them, together with their righteous ancestors, spouses, and offspring: You alone are the Almighty, the All Wise. Protect them from all evil deeds: those You protect on that Day from [the punishment for] evil deeds will receive Your mercy- that is the supreme triumph.’” In another hadith, we are informed that lowest level angels (the ones on earth) pray in favor of the righteous and against the sinners and their prayers are influential in deciding matters for humans: “Every day two angels come down from heaven and one of them says, ‘O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your Cause,’ and the other (angel) says, ‘O Allah! Destroy every miser’.”
Once Allah ﷻ makes His decisions and announces them among the heavenly angels, they act in accordance to His demands and carry out actions on earth inspiring hearts of humans and other creation, to make things happen in accordance to what has been decreed. A prophetic hadith sheds light on descent of such commands and how they are implemented: “….when our Lord [Blessed is His Name and Most High] decrees a matter, He is glorified by the bearers of the Throne (i.e. the highest council of angels). Then the inhabitants who are below them, then those below them, until such glorification reaches this (earthly) heaven glorify him. Then the inhabitants of the sixth heaven ask the inhabitants of the seventh heaven: "What did your Lord say?" So they inform them; then the inhabitants of each heaven seek the information, until the news is conveyed to the inhabitants of the heavens of the earth.” 
Once Allah’s commandments reach the angels of earth then they act according to what good or bad has been decided for individuals as well as nations. The decision may be a punishment such as natural disasters. It may be punishment in the form of discord and infighting that has been decreed for a nation, and then angels inspire their hearts with hatred towards one another, which may last as long as Allah ﷻ wills. Likewise, the fighting could also be a source of mercy in the form of a trial for the good ones to defeat the rebellious for sake of justice and so on. The divine decisions may take effect immediately or years to materialize, depending on how, what Allah ﷻ decides, and He is Almighty All Wise: (Al Quran 32:05) He governs from the heaven to the earth and then the record (of this governance) goes up to Him in a day whose measure is a thousand years in your reckoning. - Maulana Maududi in his Tafheem comments on this verse: “Allah’s decrees are not passed and enforced in the history of mankind according to the earthly watches and calendars. People would be foolish if from this they understood that the predicted consequences would follow their evil acts and deeds immediately. Not to speak of days and months and years, the occurrence of the results may even take centuries.”
 Sahih al-Bukhari 7429
 Al Quran 40:7-9
 Sahih al-Bukhari 1442
 Jami at-Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3224
 Tafheem ul Quran - Maududi n.d.
The Invisible Beings
The origin of the English term "genie" also comes from the Arabic term jinn, a creation of Allah ﷻ mentioned in the Quran. The term genie might recall for many, the story of Aladdin and his lamp originally recorded in 1001 Arabian Nights (Alif Layla in Arabic) - a collection of stories from medieval times in Arab and Muslim world. Jinns (invisible beings) are one of the creations of Allah ﷻ. Just like humans, they too have a free will. Unlike humans who are created of earth (or earthly substances) the jinns are created from a special sort of fire which is invisible to our normal sense perceptions and that is why they belong to the world of unseen. In Islam every word has a relation to its meaning and interestingly the same applies for the term jinn. It comes from the root j-n-n meaning "to conceal" also related to the term majnoon, one whose "ability to thinking is covered" i.e. someone insane. Jinn is also related to the Arabic term jannah meaning "paradise", also "concealing", which exists in hereafter, hidden from our sight and part of unseen matters.
The Quran describes their creation with the word maarijin-min-naar (Al Quran 55:15) which means ‘"from a flame of fire" and nar as-samum (Al Quran 15:27), which means "fire of scorching winds". According to the renown early Muslims and scholarly figures such as Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiAllahu anhu) and others the meaning of the word maarijin-min-naar is the "extremity of the flame" or as "purest and best of fire". This makes us realize that jinns are made of a special kind of fire and not the fire as we know that we make use of. Just like how humans are made of earth, we carry earthly substances within our bodies but at the same time we are not made of pure earth, we have other substances mixed within us. Only Allah ﷻ knows their true form, however, reading these terms it seems as though they are created from a form of fire and carry heat, like radiation, which is invisible to humans. The Quran teaches us that they were created before humans: (Al Quran 15:26-27) AND, INDEED, We have created man out of sounding clay, out of dark slime transmuted. Whereas the jinn (invisible beings) We had created, [long] before, out of the fire of scorching winds.
There are good ones and evil among the jinns just as how humans too have good and evil among them. The evil among them are referred to with the Arabic term shayateen in Quran and hadith which means "devils". Shaytaan or satan is one of the shayateen (devils) and is their leader. There are many types of jinns as explained in hadith and other Islamic literature. Such as the Prophet ﷺ said: “There are three types of jinn: one that flies through the air, one that are snakes and dogs, and one which stay in places and travel about.” The subsequent topics shed light on their types and actions.
 Tabarani & Bayhaqi – All About Jinn Pt. 1 - IslamAwareness.net n.d.
A Modern Investigation & Analysis
Chris Line in his article Jinn from a Scientific Viewpoint suggests that jinns dwell in a parallel level to man, but due to their existing at a different vibratory rate, they are normally invisible to us. He suggests their belonging to the infrared part of our electromagnetic spectrum. Though no clear evidence of this theory exists yet it could be related in many ways to our knowledge of Jinns in Islam.
Electromagnetic radiation is a transmission of waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies within electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared radiation, like other radiations such as light or x rays, is part of this spectrum, a type of radiant energy invisible to human eyes but can be felt as heat. All objects in the universe emit some level of IR radiation, but two of the most obvious sources are Sun and Fire. Our earth absorbs radiation from the sunlight throughout the day and emits it at night. Chris suggests that if a being had a body of low-frequency Infra-red, it could live deep down inside the Earth, interpenetrating what we consider to be solid materiality. If correct, it explains the fact jinns dwelling inside the ground and their influence in the night as suggested in Quran: (Al Quran 113:03) ...from the mischief of created things and from the evil of night's darkness when it spreads. - The Prophet ﷺ said: "Gather your children when darkness spreads..., for the jinn are abroad and seize them.” The Quranic terms maarijin-min-naar (Al Quran 55:15) meaning "smokeless fire" and nar as-samum (Al Quran 15:27) meaning "fire of scorching winds" implies their fiery nature and invisibility because smoke releases from a burning of a physical object but their fire does not involve burning of any physical objects.
Chris also suggests they dwell and connect at a possible point where electromagnetic energy meets our psychic or extra-sensory perceptions. This implies their influencing our dreams at certain moments when our soul is connected with the spiritual world, such as the Prophet ﷺ said about a dream from satan: “... the evil dream which causes pain is from satan…” The suggestion of their belonging to an electromagnetic radiation may also explain the hadith pertaining to visual ability of certain animals to detect them: “..And when you hear the braying of donkeys, seek refuge with Allah from satan for (their braying indicates) that they have seen a satan.” According to Helmut Tributsch of the Free University of Berlin, human skin is quite damp, due to sweat gland secretion as compared to animals who have relatively dry skin. Electromagnetic disturbances precede an earthquake and large amounts of static electricity build up in the air electrifies animal’s fur with static charge. Often survivors have witnessed unusual behavior in the animals preceding an earthquake. Moreover a donkey's ability to detect jinn radiation or energy is similar to the ability of a snake to detect infrared radiation emitting from their prey whom they can strike even in the absence of physical light. Vipers, pythons and boas have holes on their faces called pit organs, which contain a membrane that can detect infrared radiation from warm bodies up to one metre away. At night, the pit organs allow snakes to 'see' an image of their predator or prey — as an infrared camera does — giving them a unique extra sense.
 Line 1989
 Sunan Abi Dawud - Book 26, Hadith 3724
 Sahih Muslim 2263 a
 Sahih al-Bukhari 3303
 Tahir-ul-Qadri 2001
 Fang 14th March 2010
Correcting The Biblical Perspective
Allah ﷻ has given free will to two types of creation on earth: humankind and jinns. Just as humans exercise their freedom of will, similarly the jinns can do it as well. Satan or Iblees (one of his names in Quran) was a jinn and not an angel, who do not carry free-will, as clearly mentioned in the Quran: (Al Quran 18:50) AND [remember that] when We told the angels, ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam,’ they all prostrated themselves, save Iblis: he [too] was one of those jinns (invisible beings), but then he turned away from his Sustainer command.
Satan is one of the jinn kind and not an angel who one day decided to disobey Allah’s will, a corrupted concept taught to followers of bible which, to me, confuses more than it helps make sense of everything. Jinns are a separate creation from the angels as taught in the Quran unlike the Bible that does not distinguish this fact. The concept that angels have free will appears in the Bible. Bible says angels do have free will, which confuses everything like angels becoming devils due to freedom of will to reject commandments of God. A believer of this biblical concept may very well doubt the authenticity of revelation process because God has always assigned angels to deliver His messages to the Prophets and Messengers, as also taught in the Quran. Since Bible does not distinguish these two creations is maybe why Jews and Christians believe satan is a "fallen angel". This may be the reason why many Jews and Christians, in their ignorance, also believe that satan was the "fallen angel" to appear to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, not Archangel Jibraeel (Gabriel) and in their hastiness conclude that he was a false prophet.
Every word in Islam has relation to its meaning and so does the term "satan". Satan is correctly spelled in Arabic as shaytaan - which is derived from the verb shatan means "he was [or became] remote" i.e. he became the farthest from divine mercy and remote from all that is good and true due to his disobedience to Allah ﷻ thus he is referred to with this term. As per Islamic traditions, satan’s real name was Azazeel and he was born among the jinns on earth, was extremely pious and renown for Allah’s worship that he was given a spiritual status high enough that placed him among the heavenly angels.
 Al Quran 18:50 – Asad Translation.
Devils Among Jinn & Humans
First we need to understand what is defined as a "devil" in Islam. Devil is used for a shaytaan or a satan, which is not a reference to the main satan, the evil jinn who misguided Adam and Eve (alaihim us salaam). In fact, any jinn that is evil and attempts to misguide or harm, in any way, is referred to as a devil. The Arabic word shayateen (plural of shaytaan) can be defined in English as "a group of devils". The term shayateen is generally used by Muslims to refer to the devils among the jinn on earth. Islam teaches us that just like humans have good and bad among them so too does jinn kind. However the ones that collaborate with satan and his followers are the evil ones for whom we use the term shayateen. Another very important thing is the application of the term shayateen is not limited to the devils among the jinn but in fact even humans who are evil and devilish in their habits and nature are included in this term. This is something made clear for us in the Quran and prophetic teachings: (Al Quran 6:112) In the same way We assigned to each prophet an enemy, evil humans and evil jinn. They suggest alluring words to one another in order to deceive. - The famous 20th century Muslim scholar Muhammad Asad (formerly Leopold Weis) in his famous commentary Message of the Quran quotes a prophetic hadith recorded by Imam Tabari that supports this fact about shayateen: the Prophet ﷺ was asked, “Are there satans (shayateen) from among men?” - And he replied, “Yes, and they are more evil than the satans (shayateen) from among the invisible beings (al-jinn).”
Asad explains that in a wider sense, shaytaan is used in the Quran to describe the satanic (exceedingly evil) propensities including all impulses which run counter to reason, truth and morality, in man's own soul and those in the spiritual world (jinns). Such as in the following verse, Allah ﷻ brings our attention to the attitude of hypocrites who, under the influence of their satanic impulses, pretend to be with the believers: (Al Quran 2:14) they assert, "We believe"; but when they find themselves alone with their evil impulses (shayateen), they say, "Verily, we are with you; we were only mocking!" - By following such evil propensities of their own souls these jinns and humans have become like devils.
 Surah Al Anaam (Chapter 6 of the Quran) - Asad 1980
Their potential to cause diseases and psychological disorders
Islam does inform us about various abilities of the jinn shayateen (devils) including potential harms such as causing diseases. There is an authentic hadith of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that is the key to understanding this topic: “The satan flows through the son of Adam like blood.” The Prophet ﷺ told us a very important fact about their ability to flow inside of us like blood flows inside our veins. Due to their fiery nature like radiation, there is likely chance that they can penetrate our biological as well as neurological systems. The term majnoon coming from the root jinn, refers to someone who is not in his senses as their intellect is covered. Thus, a person suffering from some sort of mental disorder is usually referred to as a majnoon in Arabic and other Eastern languages. The renown Turkish Islamic scholar named Fethullah Gulen said something very important in reference to the prophetic warning and gave a an advice to those in the medical profession: “Jinn can penetrate a body even deeper than X-rays. They can reach into a being's veins and the central points of the brain. They seem to be like lasers, which are used in everything from computers to nuclear weaponry, from medicine to communication and police investigations, and to removing obstructions in our veins and arteries. So, when we consider that satan and all jinn are created from smokeless fire that penetrates deep into the body, like radiation or radioactive energy, we can understand the meaning of the Prophetic Tradition: ‘satan moves where the blood moves.’ Jinn can harm the body and cause physical and psychological illnesses. It might be a good idea for medical authorities to consider whether jinn cause certain types of cancer, since cancer is an unordered and diseased growth in the body that we can describe as cellular anarchy. Maybe some jinn have settled in that part of the body and are destroying its cellular structure.” Interestingly American Cancer Society claims that no one knows the exact cause of most cases of cancer. They know certain changes in our cells can cause cancer to start, but do not yet know exactly how it all happens. Scientists are still studying this problem.
As per Islamic texts the jinn are various types and not all are bad, there are many that are good and believers. The ones that harm us for no reason are always the devils or shayateen. As per prophetic traditions some are small and so their harm is relatively much lesser such as making us catch some sort of illness etc. So it could very well be that somebody suffering from a mental disorder like schizophrenia or disease like cancer, be affected by a devil. To repel their effects Muslims usually listen and recite a sort of an exorcism called ruqyah (healing) which includes certain verses from the Quran that have a therapeutic effect which gradually heals the patient. From personal experience, my mother got diagnosed with cancer and in addition to the medical therapy, continuously listening to ruqyah had a very miraculous healing affect that finally cured her. Interestingly in our modern times when cancer has become a global epidemic ruqyah has proven to be very effective for cancer patients, along with medicine, in the Islamic world. Most important method to protect yourself from their harms is that we Muslims are told to follow the lifestyle of the Prophet ﷺ as much as possible.
 Sunan Abi Dawud 4719
 Jinn and Human Beings - Gulen 2001
 American Cancer Society - team 2018