"Islam is based on naql (text) and aql (intellect). Some people just have the texts - we call them naql-heads!" - Shaykh Hamza Yusuf.
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “...And whoever says (something) about the Qur'an according to his (own) opinion, then let him take his seat in the Fire." - Commenting on this part of the hadith, Imam Al-Ghazzali (Latinized Al Gazel 1058 - 1111 CE), one of the greatest Islamic Scholars, said that this hadith condemns two kinds of people. Firstly those who attempt to use their intellect independently i.e. they ignore the basic knowledge required to understand the Quran to give opinion such as linguistic skills of Arabic, opinions of the Prophet ﷺ & his companions, opinions of the people of knowledge, the various asbab (reasons and circumstances) for a particular revelation or group of verses, then they are definitely misguided. Second are those group who refuse to seek new meanings that may come to the minds and give us broader understanding of the Quran and its knowledge, after acquiring basic requirements.
“The Prophet prohibited individual interpretation and this prohibition has 2 objects. The first object is to limit it in hadith and external tafsir (traditional commentaries), not discover new meanings and to give up independent thinking. The second object is other than that. He who is not expert in external meanings and discovers their meanings only by intellect also commits mistakes. He belongs to that class of men who interpret it according to their own opinions. At first, there is necessity of Hadith and Tafsir for external meaning in order to be free from mistakes and then with the advancement of knowledge and wisdom, meanings come out from the intellect." 
Its important to note that the same methodology applies for hadith interpretation. The opinions of the hadith experts and scholars should be considered and see how closer their opinion is to ours and that gives better way of determining how far we are from something that is correct.
 Jami At - Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 2951 - Sunnah.com - https://sunnah.com/urn/639310
 Ihya Ulum-id-din (Revival of the Religious Sciences) - Chapter VIII - Excellence of the Quran
Quran - A Book of Shifa (Healing)
The Quran is a book of guidance and it was this guidance that revolutionized the hearts and minds of the early Muslims. It brought the ignorant Bedouins from the confinement of the Arabian desert lifestyle and made them powerful enough to bring down 2 major political powers of the time: The Byzantine Roman & the Persian Sassanian Empire. After them it was again the Quran that inspired the successors of those early Muslims in to bringing about one of the major scientific and educational revolution in the medieval world, centered in Baghdad during the Abbasid period, that impacted the entire globe for years to come. But the Quran’s message is not only what inspires its audience, its words also move people, even those who may not know a word of Arabic. Famous Egyptian reciter Qari Abdul Basit reportedly once accompanied then President Gamal Abdul Nasir to a meeting with the Soviet leaders. During a break in the meeting, Nasir asked him to recite the Quran before the top Soviet leaders. When he finished the recitation, Qari saw four of them shedding tears. “We don’t know what it was” they later explained. But there was something touching in those words! Allah ﷻ has said in Al Quran 17:82: “We send down the Quran as healing (shifa) and mercy to those who believe…” Of the many Divine Names of Allah ﷻ in the Quran, there is one called Al Shafi meaning “The Healer”, hence He has provided various sources on earth for curing of our physical, psychological and spiritual diseases, and one of the major sources is the Quran. The Quran are not just words of Arabic language, they are Divine words of Allah ﷻ, His Divine language in which He communicated to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. It was Prophet Muhammad’s companions who were the first to use the Quran as a shifa (healing). One of them recited Surah Al Fatiha (The Opening), the first chapter of the Quran, over a person stung by a scorpion and helped him cure. They referred to this Surah as ruqyah (practice to treat illnesses, evil eye, magic) and Muslims have been reciting it as such since then.
Quran Recitation in Islamic Medieval Hospitals
During the Islamic Golden Age, when scientific research was at its peak in the Islamic world, Muslim Physicians were in the forefront of the medical field employing innovations and therapeutic techniques way ahead of their time. They treated mental illnesses by confining the patients in asylums with 21st century techniques of music therapy. Fez, Morocco, had an asylum built for the mentally ill as early in the 8th century, and for the insane asylums were built by the Arabs in Baghdad in 705 CE, in Cairo in 800 CE, and in Damascus and Aleppo in 1270 CE. In addition to baths, drugs, kind and benevolent treatment given to the mentally ill, music-therapy and occupational therapy were also employed. There were mainly 3 types of music and all were used for patient therapy. First was the regular musical instruments mainly inspired by the Turkish culture, second was the religious music which included zikr (remembrance of Allah), recitation of Quran, Adhaan (call to prayer) and third were natural sound system built within the hospital structure to produce therapeutic effects such as chirping of canaries from the main garden, sound of fountain water in the courtyard etc.
One of the amazing examples of healing the sick through music therapy was the Al-Mansuri Hospital in Cairo (1284 CE) and like 21st century hospitals it carried several amenities that assisted in healing the patients such as professional storytellers were appointed to narrate stories and jokes to patients which Radio, TV, and PC have replaced today. Additionally, a significant aspect of healing therapy was the recitation of the Quran, religious songs sung by muaddhin (prayer caller) in their melodious voices before the morning adhaan (call for prayer), so that afflicted patients might forget their suffering. 9th century physician also a musician, al-Kindi (Abu Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi), was the earliest known Arab Islamic scholars to use music therapy on patients and used the practice to cure a paralyzed child. From then onwards till Ottoman era, physicians such as 16th century Ottoman doctor Moses Hamun (Ibn Hamun), have applied music therapy even for toothache. An image of the Ottoman era medical text depicts jinns (devils) as a tooth cavity which implies importance given by Ottoman medical experts to spiritual cures through Quran and religious music (sufi music), along with medical cure.
Music Therapy in the West
In the last few decades an increasing number of doctors and medical experts in the West are agreeing and encouraging music therapy in healing patients as studies show evidence that the power of music can be tapped to heal the body, strengthen the mind and unlock the creative spirit. Reports published in International Journal of Arts Medicine, doctors and medical experts at Harvard Medical School, Stanford University School of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Nursing, Colorado State University, New York's Strang Cancer Prevention Center, Yale University School of Medicine etc. provide evidence that music therapy has its healing effects on patients suffering from numerous psychological and health issues. They offer dramatic accounts of how doctors, musicians, and healthcare professionals use music to deal with everything from anxiety to cancer, high blood pressure, chronic pain, dyslexia, even mental illness.
Quran Therapy by Muslim Doctors
As Western medical experts emphasize the use of music therapy for healing patients, we are noticing several doctors in the Muslim world, many of whom graduated from the institutions in the West, are simultaneously applying Quran recitation as a therapy for their patients and are seeing extremely positive results. Dr. Javed, is an MBBS, FCPS (Pakistan), FCCS (USA) and FDM (USA), head of the Services Hospital ICU in Lahore, and a consultant physician and intensivist. He plays the recitation of the Quran and according to him several patients of epilepsy, brain haemorrhage and organ failures have shown unbelievable recovery because of it. “I really don’t know how listening to these golden words works in the recovery of patients but my results say that this chapter of the Holy Quran not only works but works wonders,” he says, referring to Surah Al Rahman (Chapter 55) of the Holy Quran. He makes his point through data of patients he treated in the hospital. During his four-year stint at the ICU of the Services Hospital, he has treated 96 cases of wheat pill cases and 75 of them survived the poison, while the mortality rate of those consuming aluminium phosphide (what a wheat pill contains) in European and American hospitals is 90 to 100 per cent. His therapy has also been recorded by several local media channels in Pakistan.
Several studies in support of Quran’s therapeutic effect have also been published in Iran. A study published in the International Journal of Scientific Study by Iranian medical experts from Zabol city after clinical trial research on ICU patients provides evidence that Quran recitation influences the brain cells and restores their balance and coordination. It was effective in improving and stabilizing their vital signs. The study concluded that Quran recitations should be used beside other medical methods in ICU. The study also suggested that Quran recitation is cost effective (there is no cost for its use) and an alternative for excessive use of drugs. As Iran suffers from Coronavirus, in addition to years of brutal sanctions by Western countries that crippled many of its industries including medical, there are nurses assisting COVID-19 patients with Quran recitation.
What is most important to realize about this fact of Quran being a shifa (healer) is that Quran is linked with faith, with belief in One God i.e. Allah ﷻ and one can only benefit from its tremendous spiritual energy, if one truly has faith in their Creator and that what they are listening to are indeed His Divine Words: (Al Quran 41:44) Say, “It is guidance and healing for those who have faith, but the ears of the disbelievers are heavy, they are blind to it, it is as if they are being called from a distant place.”
 First Things First: For Inquiring Minds and Yearning Hearts, Miracle of the Quran, Khalid Baig, Open Mind Press (July 14, 2004)
 Sahih al-Bukhari 5736 – Sunnah.com
 Music Therapy, Ibrahim B. Syed, Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc - https://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_1_50/music_therapy.htm
 What is Medical Music Therapy in Islamic Civilization? Siti Norhidayah Mohd Sufie & Roziah Sidik, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 8, No. 3; March 2017 - https://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_8_No_3_March_2017/20.pdf
 Ottoman Medical Text - https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DQXXLiJUEAIUu-x.jpg
 B. Syed, Music Therapy
 A doctor who prescribes a dose of Quranic verses, Dawn, Ahsan Raza 26 Mar 2012 - https://www.dawn.com/news/705440/a-doctor-who-prescribes-a-dose-of-quranic-verses
 Daily Pakistan Digital - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=666JmA1e7xQ
 Investigating Aid Effect of Holy Quran Sound on Blood Pressure, Pulse, Respiration and O2 Sat in ICU Patients, Ali Mansouri, Aziz Shahraki Vahed, Ali Reza Sabouri, Hossein Lakzaei, Azizollah Arbabisarjou, International Journal of Scientific Study, Vol 5, Issue 7, November 2017.
 Iranian nurses reciting Quran to COVID-19 patients in Ramadan, The Iran Project, https://theiranproject.com/blog/2020/04/28/photos-iranian-nurses-reciting-quran-to-covid-19-patients-in-ramadan/
(Al Quran 96:1-4) Read in the name of your Lord who created. Who created man from a clinging form. Read! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One. Who imparted knowledge by means of the pen. Who taught man what he did not know. But man exceeds all bounds when he thinks he is self-sufficient.
These were the first verses revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the command to "read" followed by the use of pen emphasizes human attribution to acquire knowledge and educate others. It is our human attribute to acquire knowledge that made the angels bow in honor to Prophet Adam (alaihi salaam) when Allah ﷻ asked him to recite "names" (Al Quran 2:30-34). It is this which makes us a unique creation and responsible for our existence on earth, the use of its resources and accountability in hereafter. No other creation has been granted such responsibility. It was based on guidance from the Quran and our human potential that Muslims brought one of the greatest scientific revolutions in human history during the Islamic Golden Age. The beginning of this revolution started from 8th century Baghdad and by the 1100 CE, there were 75 madrassas (Islamic Universities) in Cairo, 51 in Damascus, and 44 in Aleppo. There were hundreds more in Muslim Spain at this time as well. It was these madrassas where students were taught religious sciences along with secular subjects the purpose of which was to integrate faith with knowledge. These educational havens in which suppressed European minds of dark ages also sought refuge from their Church. The Quran praises those who integrate faith with knowledge because such educated are truly humble and grateful for their learning: (Al Quran 35:28)…Of all His servants, only such as are endowed with [innate] knowledge stand [truly] in fear of God: [for they alone comprehend that,] verily, God is Almighty, Much-Forgiving.
With emphasis on attribute of knowledge, we are also reminded about our nature to become arrogant if learning process and progress is not guided by faith in Allah ﷻ and sense of His consciousness: (Al Quran 96:1-4) But man exceeds all bounds when he thinks he is self-sufficient - Knowledge is power and power makes one feel self sufficient but it also has the potential to corrupt. The foremost and primary purpose of education in Islam is to ensure that learning process is based on consciousness of our Creator, the primary cause of our existence and human abilities. Today mainstream education is largely divorced from such consciousness which is bound to result in ignorance and arrogance of the educated that causes them to deny accountability in the hereafter before their Creator. The Quran addresses this ungrateful attitude: (Al Quran 36:77-79) IS MAN, then, not aware that it is We who create him out of a [mere] drop of sperm - whereupon, lo! he shows himself endowed with the power to think and to argue? And [now] he [argues about Us, and] thinks of Us in terms of comparison, and is oblivious of how he himself was created! [And so] he says, "Who could give life to bones that have crumbled to dust?"
So how does God consciousness or godlessness impact our learning process?
The best parable is given in the words of Imam Ghazali (1058-111 CE): “Education is like rain water which comes down pure. Trees, plants and leaves drink that water which assumes different natures according to their different kinds. Water increases bitterness in a plant that is bitter and sweetness in a plant which is sweet. People acquire education and change it according to their conduct and desires. One whose object of learning is to boast increases his boast by education. One whose object is to increase God-fear increases his God-fear by education.” (Ihya ulum id deen)
The Quran not only places great emphasis on education which is one of our greatest human attributes but also guides on purpose and use of education which is more important than just education. Hence revelation of the Quran not only impacted the world of education in human history but also guided on how to responsibly make use of it.
It is was the Quran that encouraged scientific inquiry which inspired medieval era Muslims to become pioneers in several fields of knowledge. It was verses such as these that inspired them to explore and benefit from Allah's creation: "Verily in the creation of the heavens and of the earth, and in the succession of the night and of the day, are signs for men of understanding, who standing sitting and reclining, bear God in mind and reflect on the creation of heaven and earth; and say ‘O Our Lord! You have not created this in vain." (Al Quran 3:190-191) In Islam religion & science complement each other and this was one of the primary factors that Muslims were at the forefront of almost all sciences, making new discoveries and building on earlier ones. Names like Ibn Sina, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Khaldun, and al-Farabi come to mind when people think of the giants of Islamic science. Quran is a book of guidance and it mentions several prophetic miracles like those of Prophets Isa curing illnesses like modern medical professionals (Al Quran 3:49), Prophet Musa's like a mechanical engineer transforms his stick into a large snake like a robot (Al Quran 36:45), Prophet Suleiman like a pilot traveling at the speed of a modern aircraft and covering a months journey within few hours (Al Quran 34:12). However, the primary reason why those miracles are all included in the Quran, the final revelation, implies a breakthrough in science that humanity will achieve in the future and only the Quran will explain their possibility. Simultaneously, their mention also serves the purpose of morally guiding us towards making the right use of those scientific achievements.
For instance the miracle of healing that Prophet Isa (alaihi salaam) displayed: "I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the dead by God’s leave" (Al Quran 3:49) - The Quran is particularly advising humans, especially doctors and medical professionals, to follow Isa (alaihis alaam) morality and through his life incidents also implies possibility of current breakthrough in medical sciences that gave humanity the hope of possibility to be healed from severe illnesses. By advising professionals on the possibility of finding cures for illnesses it advises them never to forget that their achievements were as a result of Allah’s help. Always be grateful and not be ungrateful by assigning their accomplishments, solely to their own efforts, or worst exploiting this knowledge for personal benefits such as hoarding wealth, quite commonly done by the pharmaceutical industry or as the rich governments are busy hoarding COVID-19 vaccines while developing world struggles to gain them with their limited resources.
While encouraging scientific inquiry and hinting towards a technological future, Allah ﷻ continues to remind us throughout the Quran that this could not have been possible had He not gifted us with a creative mind, as opposed to all other living beings, and it is this mind that we use for inquiry in to nature which helps us benefit ourselves and everyone else: "And He has made subservient to you, [as a gift] from Himself, all that is in the heavens and on earth: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who think!….Whoever does what is just and right, does so for his own good; and whoever does evil, does so to his own hurt; and in the end to your Sustainer you all will be brought back." (Al Quran 45:13-15)
Imam Ghazali, 9th century philosopher & sufi says that the very objective of Shariah (Islamic Law) is to promote the welfare of the people which safeguards their faith, wealth, property, families, lives, intellect and anything that serves larger public interest. As per Islamic jurists the primary objective of Shariah is catering for the interest of the people and reliving them of hardships including economic hardships. The economic well being of any society is inseparable from their welfare which obviously cannot be achieved with out a just economic system.
Introduction to Islamic Economics
The Quran encourages economic activity and recognizes it as part of the Islamic society, it reminds the business owners to always be conscious of their spiritual relationship (taqwa) with Allah ﷻ while doing business: (Al Quran 62:10) Once the prayer is over, disperse throughout the land and seek the bounty of Allah. And remember Allah often so you may be successful. - Additionally the Quran reminds of the moral responsibility towards general public required from those engaging in business activities: (Al Quran 26:181-183) [Always] give full measure, and be not among those who [unjustly] cause loss [to others]; and [in all your dealings] weigh with a true balance, and do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs; and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption... - A wealthy businessman or entrepreneur deserves the right to earn wealth and have protection but the rights of labor and interest of the consumers also need protection. In the modern age very less attention is given to labor and consumers, which are common people. Hence, an Islamic State encourages wealth creation but also ensures that redistribution of wealth should be free of exploitation and interference of the rich and influential few.
Dr. Muhammad Umar Chapra, an expert Islamic Economist, explains that the redistribution of wealth primarily consists of three parts: One, providing assistance for gainful employment to unemployed, a fair earnings for those employed and that they are able to find employments in accordance to their talent and abilities. Second, acquiring wealth and making profit is a strong human motivation which provides incentive for individuals to make use of necessary resources to do business and generate economic activity: (Al Quran 45:13) He has subjected all that is in the heavens and the earth for your benefit, as a gift from Him. - Therefore providing a safe environment and making resources available for individuals to conduct business is the responsibility of the Islamic State. Third, Islam obligates system of zakat and law of inheritance, a distribution of the deceased person's wealth to parents, spouse, children and other relatives, after bequeathing 1/3rd of the assets to anyone the deceased had wished to. Zakat is a systematic redistribution of income from the rich to the poor so that: (Al Quran 59:7) wealth does not circulate only among the rich - Zakat is a 2.5% tax on a persons owned wealth (bank deposits, property, land, shares, jewelry etc.) in addition to other taxes (land taxes - ushr (agriculture tax), kharaj), that the state charges the wealthy to pay the needy due to their disabilities such as physical or mental or circumstantial such as unemployment, that prevents them to attain respectable earning by their own effort. For instance if a millionaire has a net worth of 150 million then by charging 2.5% on their wealth (150,000,000 x 2.5% = 3750,000) would generate more than 3.5 million and if thousands of millionaires in a 200 million population paid zakat, that would generate more then enough revenue for allocation towards public welfare. In fact it is quite interesting to note that in order to bridge the ever increasing gap between rich and poor in the U.S, Elizabeth Warren, a democratic 2020 presidential candidate unveiled her economic plan to tax 2-3% on every American that held a net worth of $50 million and $1 billion.
Islamic Economic vs Capitalism
Capitalism encourages individual property ownership, but unlike Islam there is no moral restraints on modern capitalists regulating their position in the commerce which results in exploitation by the wealthy of those who are less influential and common. A major difference between Islamic Economics and Capitalism is that the latter is largely supported through global banking industry which is completely based on usury (lending money on rent or interest) and not real capital. Banks are authorized by governments to create fictitious money and loan them on interest rates (finance) to big businesses, corporations, public and also the governments. If banking system in owned by private individuals or families then they become the real owners of the indebted economy. Today the modern banking system emerged in the West and dominated the entire world. The currency used for international trade between nations is US dollar and the Euro, issued by the Western banking system. IMF and World Bank, global financial institutions dominated by the West, loan out billions to the developing world (in South America, Asia, Africa etc.) and due to inequality in the currency exchange (e.g. $1 = 160 Pak rs or 1 Euro = 416 Nigerian Naira) the developing economies, with their political problems and consistent political interference by West, are unable to ever fully recover and pay off their hefty debts. This causes an entire nation to become permanently enslaved by their foreign creditors. Even if some of them were able to pay off, this one-sided international monetary system continues to exist and is the source of wealth inequality in the world.
It is this system condemned by Islam in the harshest terms: (Al Quran 3:130) Devour not usury, doubled and multiplied but fear Allah, (Al Quran 2:274 - 275)… those who devour usury become like the one whom satan has bewitched and maddened by his touch … - & (2:278) if you do not do so then take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger - Islam discourages slavery and all leading factors towards it such as economic exploitation. The freeing of slave is the highest point of honour to which Quran invites man (Al Quran 90:13). Slavery is very active in our age through prevalence of Capitalism causing the gap between rich and poor to widen more than ever before. Through its debt based economic system the wealth has gradually flown to the few rich at the expense of common people who have been reduced to slave like conditions. First, it caused a huge wealth gap in the West such as 0.1% elite (wealthiest 75000 households) in America own as much as bottom 90% (of 130 million total households). Increased debt (mortgage refinance, consumer credit, and student loans) is said to be the primary consequence of diminished wealth of bottom 90%. Second, it has continued to increase gap between the wealthy and the common people across the world. Oxfam’s 2020 report, ‘Time to Care’, claims that the world’s 2,153 billionaires have more wealth than the 4.6 billion people who make up 60 percent of the planet’s population! The report shows governments are massively under-taxing the wealthiest individuals and corporations and failing to collect revenues that could tackle poverty and inequality. Due to increase in poverty around the globe millions have been subjected to slavery such as prostitution, forced labor, forced in to crime or recruited for conflicts resulting in a boom in the multi-billion dollar human trafficking business. In reference to this debt based economic system that Russian writer Leo Tolstoy said: "Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal – that there is no human relation between master and slave." When governments, banks and corporations form an alliance at the expense of the majority then that elite influences all social, political and economic policies in the societies. Hence private ownership can only benefit the society under a just economic system that carries the strength to prevent the wealthy from committing fraud, cheating, exploitation, practicing usury, monopolizing and similar evil tactics.
Why Socialism is Un-Islamic?
On the other hand, in the alternative socialism economic model the ownership of assets and wealth is discouraged which actually deprives freedom of will, something that lowers human beings to the state of animals which is condemned in the Quran. What Socialism demands, is a complete equality among all humans, which is unnatural for humankind as per divine decree and defeats the spiritual purpose of our existence on earth: (Al Quran 6:165)… (He) has raised some of you by degrees above others, so that He might try you by means of what He has bestowed upon you. - The Islamic jurists agree that if a Muslim earns by rightful means and from his own wealth fulfils obligations towards welfare of his society by paying zakat and other contributions, there is nothing wrong in his possessing more wealth than other fellow Muslims. Ownership of wealth provides an opportunity to gain blessings by spending: (Al Quran 2:177) however much he himself may cherish it - upon his near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and the beggars, and for the freeing of human beings from bondage (of debt). - Along with permitting individual property ownership, the Quran warns against exploitation of weak which can result in many social and economic ills, and for this Islam places certain moral restraints on money making motives by encouraging us to seek hereafter but: (Al Quran 28:77) without forgetting, your own [rightful] share in this world; and do good [to others] as God has done good to you; and seek not to spread corruption on earth.
Waqf vs Banking Industry
A very important part of Islamic heritage and a prime factor that assisted the economic welfare of the Islamic societies was the system of Waqf which means "charitable foundation". These institutions were donated by generous Muslims devoted to charitable purposes with no intention to reclaim. They donated a land, building, or a cash waqf (that collected money donations) mainly used for a public and charity services, such as running a madrassah (university), providing capital to the needy for personal use such as marriages or business use, freeing slaves, building roads or bridges, constructing mosques etc. The inspiration for these institutions came from the Quran which encourages charity and remitting of debts for who are genuinely unable to pay, in contrast to hoarding wealth and making money off of loans to the needy (Al Quran 274-280). In fact, in 2011 the Wall Street Journal suggested during the ongoing economic crisis that led to big protests in USA, that waqf (plural awqaf) created by the Muslim civilizations and used effectively by the Ottomans could be used in part to resolve crises. It is these waqfs in the Islamic world, largely replaced by modern banking system today, that were the prime generators of economic activity. Unfortunately, these are largely missing from todays Islamic world. Modern Muslim governments need to revise their national economic policy and introduce such institutes which will at least help them eliminate much of the internal debt that these countries owe to the local banking industry. Large external debt (owed to IMF & World Bank) and internal debt (to commercial banks) are the major reasons for devaluation of a developing country's currency (against international US dollar or Euro) which causes its economy to remain weaker in the international world and inable to compete against stronger economies.
Hence Islam offers a middle and just path between the 2 models. It allows the private ownership of property and resources that play a major role in the economy but reminds the wealth owners that their ownership is a trust from Allah ﷻ because: (Al Quran 2:284) to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth - Secondly, man is a vicegerent of Allah ﷻ (Al Quran 2:30) and the wealth he owns is bound by conditions of that trust i.e. the moral values of Islam, the values of haraam (illegal) and halaal (legal) which allows the Islamic state, under the guidance of Islamic jurists, to advise the nation and enforce them, if and when necessary, to protect the welfare of the Muslim society. This explains, the manner in which Islam creates a harmony between the material and the moral, by urging Muslims to strive for material welfare but stressing simultaneously that they place this material effort on a moral foundation thus providing spiritual orientation to the entire effort, this is what is mainly missing from both economic systems, especially the global capitalist as well as the alternative socialist. Both are either secular or morally neutral or even immoral.
1. Islam, Its Meaning and Message, Third Edition 1999, The Islamic Foundation pg. 173 - Objectives of the Islamic Economic Order, Muhammad Umar Chapra, University of Karachi, 1971.
2. The Truth, Siddeeq Ahmad Nagrah, Usury & Debt, pgs 92 & 112, National Book Foundation Islamabad
3. WHAT IS CAPITALISM (BANKERISM)? By Mehmet Kurtkaya, July 9, 2016 - http://endcapitalism.org/whatiscapitalism.htm
4. "The top 0.1 percent ... own about the same wealth as 90 percent of America." POLITIFACT, The Poynter Institute, By Jon Greenberg, January 31, 2019 -https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/jan/31/elizabeth-warren/warren-top-01-own-about-much-bottom-90/
5. Why Do Banks Loan Money to Companies? By David Ingram - https://smallbusiness.chron.com/banks-loan-money-companies-73687.html
6. World’s billionaires have more wealth than 4.6 billion people, OXFAM International, 20th January 2020 - https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/worlds-billionaires-have-more-wealth-46-billion-people
7. The Institution of Waqf as a Solution to the Economic Crisis, Muslim Heritage, by Cem Nizamoglu, 11 August, 2011, https://muslimheritage.com/waqf-as-a-solution/
Whether it was the early Islamic period, the Muslim rule of Iberian Peninsula, in South Asia or the almost 6 hundred year Ottoman rule of various territories across Middle East, Africa & Eastern Europe, Islam has always provided space for non-Muslims communities. It has permitted for them to live and practice their faith peacefully. Their places of worship were largely protected and even provided new spaces for worship. Throughout Islam's almost 15 century history non-Muslims thrived under rule of the Islamic Empires. This was primarily due to the Quran that guided Muslims on treatment of their non-Muslim subjects.
The process of revelation and guidance started with Prophet Adam (alaihi salaam) and throughout history Allah ﷻ continued sending Prophets to various nations with guidance. Each nation received a revelation of their own. Quran is a completion of that process. The difference between the previous revelations (such as Bible, or Hindu Bhagvad Gita) and the Quran is that former were sent to a certain community and valid for that time but the latter is the final book of guidance for all humanity. Since Quran is the final revelation for humanity, and relates to what other communities already possess, it educates the Muslims about this historic fact. It then guides them to preach Islam through beautiful manner of persuasion, and forbids against the vice of intolerance. The Quran teaches that Islam, meaning "self-submission to the will of Allah", was always the "correct religion in the sight of Allah" (Al Quran 3:19) but also reminds that "there is no compulsion in matters of faith" (Al Quran 2:256, 18:29). Further it enjoins to inform others that "your God and our God is one" (Al Quran 29:46). If people of other faiths refuse to listen and use their reason then we are highly advised to say that "you have your own religion and I have my own" (Al Quran 109:6).
The Quran emphasizes how each nation is used to following their own way as handed down through traditions of their religious communities and advises Muslims that the best thing is not to argue over beliefs, but to race with each other towards righteousness: "To each among you, have We prescribed the law and open way. If God had willed He would have made you all of one pattern; but He would test you by what He has given to each. Strive with each other in doing good" (Al Quran 5:48). And it is in this regards that we are commanded to set precedent for others in doing good and follow Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, whose best example is a precedent for us, so that we bear witness for the rest of the world to decide what is best religious way of life: "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way, so that [with your lives] you might bear witness to the truth before all mankind, and that the Messenger might bear witness to it before you." (Al Quran 2:143)
Not to forget that Quran encourages Muslims to maintain friendship with such non-Muslims "as do not fight against you on account of [your] faith, and neither drive you forth from your homelands, God does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave towards them with full equity: for, verily, God loves those who act equitably." (Al Quran 60:08) The tolerance in the Quran is not limited to the sphere of social and communal relationships but also obligates Muslim rulers to protect and honor houses of worship of other religions under their authority. This is despite major disagreements of Islam with practices and beliefs of those religions. Amazingly the first verses revealed to Muslims commanding them to militarily defend against the religious persecution by their enemies did not single out Muslim place of worship. The command included "monasteries and churches and synagogues and mosques - in [all of] which God's name is abundantly extolled" (Al Quran 22:39), emphasizing that all are sacred and permitted to be defended in the case of injustice and persecutions.
The tolerance in the Quran extends to such a high degree that if any human believes in one God, in accountability on judgment day and lives a righteous life based on that faith, whether Muslim or a non-Muslim, are considered righteous in the sight of Allah ﷻ: "Verily, those who believe (that is Muslims) and they who follow the Jewish religion, Christians and the Sabians... whosoever believes in God and the Last Day and does that which is right shall have their reward with the Lord. Fear shall not come upon them, nor shall they grieve." (Al Quran 2:62)
Hence Quran not only fully explains the facts of humankind's religious experience and proves the authenticity of its message, but simultaneously reminds its followers to be patient and tolerate what differences they notice in religious observations of others, and let Allah ﷻ decide for them on judgment day: "...To Allah you will all return, then He will inform you of the truth regarding your differences." (Al Quran 5:48)