With the historic victory of the Taliban against one of the largest, most technologically advanced Western military alliance and the establishment of an Islamic government in Afghanistan, the liberal secular section of Pakistan is extremely concerned. It is important to note that it was these who justified Musharraf's support to US in attacking Afghanistan and crack down on the religious circles of Pakistan after 9/11 only to please the Western world. One can often recognize them from among politicians, military elite, bureaucracy, the intelligentsia on TV shows, newspapers, social media often expressing doubts against the Islamic foundation of Pakistan and claiming that the father of this nation, Quaide Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a secular and never wanted an Islamic state. They now fear that the neighboring situation might inspire masses to mobilize and demand the Islamization of Pakistan, the exact purpose for which the country was created.
How & Why Pakistan was Established?
Pakistan vs Other Nation States
Nationalism in the 19th century Europe gave birth to modern nation states where several groups of people carved their states based one of the shared social characteristics like language, culture, ethnicity, geographic location etc. Germany became the land of Germans and French speaking population joined France. Many non-Europeans also adopted this ideology and set it as the foundation for their newly independent states. For instance, the Chinese, Japanese, the Egyptians adopted territorial nationalism and build their modern nations on the geographic location of their ancient civilizations. Likewise, several modern Arab states were built based on Arab nationalism where Arabic language was the shared characteristic. But the case of Pakistan was very different. Pakistan came in to being for the first time in 1947. The pioneers that struggled to bring Pakistan in to being were not doing so based on any ethnicity, race or language because this state was going to be an amalgamation of various ethnic groups and sub-groups (Sindhi, Siraiki, Pashtun, Punjabi etc.). Hence the only factor that could have brought these various groups together for the establishment of one state was Islam and no other reason.
Chain of Events Prior to 1947
Even though Pakistan came in to existence in 1947 yet its creation was a result of chain of events that started 90 years back at the war of Independence in 1857 when Muslims fought Jihad against British. The primary aim of the British was to capture Delhi, which served as the capital for many Muslim dynasties that ruled India for centuries. Their capture of Delhi brought the last and weak Mughal empire to its end and Muslims saw themselves entering a dark era where they were going to loose political authority and be confined to slavery conditions. Its important to note that Muslims participation in this war was much more, in proportion to their small percentage of the total subcontinent population. Also, Muslims were not the majority yet their armed Jihad against British started in early 19th century. The toughest resistance to British came from Muslim Kingdom of Mysore during Anglo-Mysore wars. Brave mujahideen leaders namely Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Shah Ismail Shaheed, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Barkat Ahmad, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah, whom even British were forced to praise, played an important role in this war. After their defeat Muslims did not end their struggle. Many ulema and mashaikh continued their struggle through teaching and preaching the importance of Islam to the masses, their glorious past and necessity of Jihad. The preaching continued to give rise to several freedom fighters in 20th century such as Mahmood ul Hasan, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, and many among their students who continued their struggle and eventually joined the movement for the formation of Pakistan, a future Islamic state where Muslims would rule according to Islam once again.
A major impetus for the Muslims of the region to demand a separate homeland was the failure of the Khilafat movement and the consistent racism and opposition from the Hindus, the majority of India. The Khilafat movement was spearheaded by the Ulema to prevent the abolishment of Osmani Khilafat by the European powers after the Turks were defeated in World War 1. The Khilafat was a symbol of unity for the Muslim ummah that existed from the time of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Its abolishment happened first time in history and weighed heavily on the minds of Indian Muslims whose hope from the Osmani Khalifa kept their struggle active against British and the Hindus. With the end of the Khilafat Indian Muslims were now concerned for their future and the future of Islam. It gave rise to a Hijrat (migration) Movement which caused many Muslims to migrate to Afghanistan because they considered the British ruled India as a Dar Al Harb (the house of war) where Muslims were no longer safe to practice their deen. But unfortunately this movement caused undue hardships for the those who made the hijrat. Eventually leaders like Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, the famous Islamic poet philosopher, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation (Pakistan), and ulema and mashaikh who allied with them, decided to struggle for an independent state made up of Muslim majority areas of India where Islamic identity could be preserved and an Islamic system practiced without any fear. Iqbal's expressed his goal for an Islamic state in the following poetry on this topic:
Yehi Maqsood-E-Fitrat Hai, Yehi Ramz-E-Muslamani
Akhuwat Ki Jahangeeri, Mohabat Ki Farawani
Butan-E-Rang-O-Khoon Ko Torh Kar Millat Mein Gum Ho Ja
Na Toorani Rahe Baqi, Na Irani Na Afghani
This is the destiny of nature; this is the secret of Islam--
World‐wide brotherhood, an abundance of love!
Break the idols of color and blood and become lost in the community.
Let neither Turanians, Iranians nor Afghan remain
When many Muslims such as Egyptians, Arabs and Turks, were carving their states based on one or another forms of nationalism, Iqbal warned the Indian Muslims against such idealism that contradicted Islam which transcends all forms of race, language, color, territory. He expressed himself in the following poetry:
In Taza Khudaon Mein Sub Se Bara Watan Hai
Jo perhan iska hai woh mazhab ka kafan hai
Among the new gods of this era is a nation state
The cloak of this is the burial shroud of deen (Islam)
Why Pakistan never became an Islamic State?
First Challenge: Secular Liberal Mindset
But after the formation of its state, Pakistan gradually came under the influence of a secular, liberal minded class for whom Islam was not a necessary factor in governance and state affairs, it was only a matter of one's private affair. The origin of this class came from All India Muslim League, the sole party instrumental in bringing the Muslim masses in India together to demand the formation of a separate homeland. The members from this party became part of the first government of Pakistan after its independence. The history of this party is very important to understand why secular liberal minded people have remained a hurdle towards the objective of Islamic governance in the country. After the defeat of the Muslims in 1857 the British favored the Hindus into administration and politics resulting in Muslims being sidelined and Hindus gaining supremacy. To counter that a renown figure named Sir Syed Ahmad Khan decided to initiate an educational movement called Aligarh Movement whose aim would be to educate the Muslims minds in Western education system of the British as opposed to the traditional Islamic Madrassah education. This he did so they could become loyal British subjects, demand their due rights and compete against the influential Hindus. He suggested Muslims to educate themselves first before engaging in any political activity.
The Hindu dominated Indian National Congress was the first political party in British India, and some Muslim leaders including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had joined them as there was no political platform for Muslims in the country. But eventually the graduates and members of Aligarh institute and movement formed All India Muslim League and many like Muhammad Ali Jinnah, left Congress due to the Hindu hostility and joined it. Since Muslim League was the only political party in British India that represented Muslims they became instrumental in the struggle for their political cause. The party was mainly led by those who were the elite among Muslims because they were educated in a Western education system as opposed to the traditional madrassahs. The party also included Nawabs and Maliks, feudal landlords (zamindaars) whom British at one point in time allotted fiefdoms to neutralize rebellions. It was this party Allama Iqbal and Quaide Azam chose to push for a separate homeland. It was individuals from this party that formed the first government of Pakistan and became members of assembly. Today it is their likeminded successors that have remained a hindrance to the establishment of an Islamic state in Pakistan. To prove their nationalist viewpoint these secular liberals often quote Quaide Azam's speech of 11 August in which while presiding over the new constituent assembly declared: "....You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State..." Dr. Safdar Mahmood, author of several books on the history and politics of Pakistan, claims that apart from August 11th no less than a total of 115 times did Quaide Azam in several speeches on various occasions before and after the establishment of Pakistan stressed that the state would be based on Islamic principles. It is quite interesting that Quaide Azam expressed resentment at one point when he noticed that certain people were attempting to stop the framing of the constitution based on Shariah He said: “…a section of the people who deliberately wanted to create mischief and made propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan would not be made on the basis of shariat. Islamic principles today are as applicable to life as they were 1300 years ago; not only Muslims but also non-Muslims have nothing to fear. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. Islam has taught equality, Justice and fair play to everybody.”
A famous attempt to alienate Pakistan from its Islamic roots was made by the 2nd Chief Justice of Pakistan Muhammad Munir in his book Jinnah to Zia. He proves Quaide Azam's secular leaning from an interview he gave to a Reuters journalist Doon Campbell: "The new state would be a modern democratic state with sovereignty resting in the people and the members of the new nation having equal rights of citizenship regardless of their religion, caste or creed". Saleena Karim, an independent writer and researcher from Nottingham, England refutes Munir in her Secular Jinnah: Munir's Big Hoax Exposed claiming that the words “sovereignty resting in the people” attributed to Quaide Azam are in fact fake. She said that after having searched for years these words but could not find them anywhere. She also claimed that these so-called words were first added by Munir in his Inquiry Report of 1953 as a proof that Quaide Azam never wanted an Islamic State in Pakistan. This inquiry report was published against the protesting Ulema who were demanding to declare Ahmadis/Qadiyanis (who believe in the prophethood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed) as non-Muslims.
Second Challenge: Ethnic Nationalist Politics
Since 1947 the secular liberals has pushed for Western democracy in the country and are known for often clashing with ulema and mashaikhs, blocking all opportunities of consultation with them to find an Islamic alternative to the Western model of governance. Since they were mainly educated in Western education system under British, they preferred their way of thinking instead of Islam, their minds could not accept an alternative to Western democracy. Till today a large chunk of the politicians, upper hierarchy of the Armed forces, the Judiciary and intelligentsia, identify themselves as liberal secular and often ignore or outright challenge Pakistan’s religious foundations that were instrumental in its creation. Majority of mainstream political parties namely PPP, PML (Q or N etc.), MQM, ANP are secular and rely on ethnic politics for their vote, and often engage in communal violence against one another. Their politics has poisoned the Pakistani minds and divided them along linguistic and ethnic lines. For them accepting Islam as a model of governance will be the end their political career. Even the ruling party PTI (Pakistan Tehreek i Insaaf) led by Imran Khan who desires to build a Naya (New) Pakistan on the model of Riyasat e Madinah (Prophet's state in Madinah), remains largely free from ethnic politics but includes secular ministers such as Shirin Mazari, Fawad Chawdhry, Sheikh Rashid. They openly engage in un-Islamic acts such as cracking down on protesters demanding end to French diplomatic relations over Prophet's cartoons, tabling Conversion Bill, supporting Transgender Bill, accepting IMF loans on strict conditions, spending money on construction of Hindu & Sikh temples while ignoring Masajids, pleasing European Human Rights councils for GSP plus status, caving in to Saudi pressure etc. which puts a big question on Imran's Riyasat e Madinah ambitions.
Third Challenge: Dichotomy in Education System
The failure of subsequent governments to Islamize Pakistan also caused the education system of the country to remain divided along religious and secular lines. The madrassahs where religious sciences in Urdu are taught are separate from the regular school system where secular subjects are taught in English. The majority lower class who cannot afford English medium schools send their children to madrassahs while the middle and higher class people send their children to English schools. The regular school system was inherited from the colonization period after independence. The British established that system to help create a mindset that was closer to their thinking and way of life. This deliberate failure to Islamize education system sustains the secular vs religious dichotomy. The English educated class and thinking always got to remain influential among politicians, army, judiciary, intelligentsia and that is what sustains the dichotomy. Knowledge in Islam includes religious and secular aspects of learning, Islamization of knowledge does not separate the two, it combines both in to one.
The Islamic Foundation of Pakistan
The Role of Ulema & Mashaikhs
The strongest factor without which Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Muslim League could not have achieved the establishment of Pakistan was the contemporary Ulema and Mashaikh. The religious leaders play a very influential role in the world of Islam, the masses are emotionally and spiritually attached to them. During the Khilafat Movement Congress under Mahatama Gandhi decided to join the Muslims and saw as an opportunity to drive out the British from India. This was a short period of somewhat Hindu-Muslim unity. As a result of this an alliance of Ulema called Jamiat Ulama-i Hind decided to cooperate with the Hindus unconditionally. But there was a group of Ulema who did not like the Jamiat to give unconditional support to the Congress. They knew that Hindus were not sincere to Muslims in the long run. These ulema formed their own alliance called All India Jamiat Ulema e Islam. After failure of Khilafat Movement this group saw an alternative to the abolishment of Khilafat in the movement for Pakistan, an Islamic State. Hence they decided to join it. The Jamiat Ulema Islam included figures that belonged to all three main schools of thoughts: Deobandi, Ahle Hadith & Barelvi and all four main sufi orders of Chishtia, Qadria, Naqshbandia and Soharwardia. Hence it was the support of the millions of followers of each religious group for the Pakistan movement that turned the tide in favor of All India Muslim League in the elections of 1946 which opened the path for the creation of an Islamic State.
The prominent names amongst them are Allama Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Maulana Abdul Hamid Badauni, Mufti Muhammad Shafi, Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Sialkoti, Pir Ghulam Mujadid Sirhandi, Amin-ul-Hasanat Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif, Pir Sahib of Zakori Sharif, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Maulana Sanaullah Amratsari, Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Ghangohi, Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi, Haji Zaman Ali Shaheed and a lot of others. The role that each of these God fearing personalities played for the sake of Islam in support of Pakistan’s creation clearly proves that without their efforts All India Muslim League would have failed against Congress and its allies.
The foremost in assisting Quaide Azam on every step was Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani who hoisted the first flag of Pakistan, whom Muhammad Ali Jinnah called "Sheikh ul Islam". He did not only inspire the Muslims and gave them a hope of an Islamic state, in fact continued to struggle after Pakistan's creation against the secular liberal national assembly members for the passing of Objective Resolution called Qarardad e Maqasid which laid the foundation of the future constitution of Pakistan that would be based on the teaching of Quran & Sunnah. Another important figure was Amin ul Hasanat Pir Manki Sharif, known as Fateh Referendum because he was instrumental in largely winning the support of NWFP Muslims to join Pakistan. He was a major factor in defeating the efforts of pro-Gandhi and Congress nationalist Pashtuns of Ghaffar Khan who did not want to join Pakistan. In one of Jinnah’s letters to Hasanat, he promised that shariah law would be applied to the affairs of the Muslim community. He also assisted in rehabilitation of millions of refugees that migrated to Pakistan. Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, strongest Barelvi figure at that time, with millions of followers, threw his weight behind India Muslim league and Quaide Azam in their efforts. He declared that he would not pray janaza of any Muslim if he knew that they didn't support Pakistan. After establishment of Pakistan he initiated the Nifaz-i-Shariat Movement (Implementation of Shariat) when the ruling elite reneged on implementing the Islamic principles after the demise of the Quaid-i-Azam and Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan. Hence its quite evident that had it not been for ulema and mashaikhs like these, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's struggle could not have succeeded and Allama Iqbal's philosophy of an Islamic state could not have achieved its first step.
As mentioned earlier, that purpose of Pakistan coming in to being was not for the sake of its own creation, but the idea of its pioneers was to create an Islamic State which would first of all safeguard the wealth, honor and the religion of the Indian Muslims, which was under threat from extremist Hindus and the British authorities, and then struggle for safeguarding the wellbeing of all Muslims. The greater purpose of Pakistan, as idealized by its forefathers, in particular Allama Iqbal & Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was created to eventually assimilate all Muslims of the region and beyond establishing an Islamic world order which would fill the vacuum left by abolishment of the Ottoman Caliphate. Iqbal says in his Tulu e Islam (Rise of Islam):
Ye But Ke Tarashida-e-Tehzeeb-e-Nawi Hai
Bazu Tera Touheed Ki Quwwat Se Qawi Hai
Islam Tera Dais Hai, Tu Mustafavi Hai
This idol (of nation state) which is the product of the new civilization
Is the plunderer of the structure of the Holy Prophet’s Deen (Religion)
Your arm is enforced with the strength of the Divine Unity
You are the followers of Mustafa, your country is Islam
That is why we believe Pakistan was created purely for the sake of Islam and to bring all Muslims under its fold one day so that the Islamic brotherhood which was symbolized in the caliphate system that lasted centuries till abolished by Europeans, could be revived once again. Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani who worked day and night with Quaid e Azam for the formation of Pakistan and who led his Janaza said "that it was the ambition and determination of the Quaid-i-Azam to create a solid bloc of all the Muslim states stretching from Karachi to Ankara, from Pakistan to Morocco and from here to the capital city of China. He wanted to see the Muslims of the world united under the banner of Islam."
Hazarat Zauqi Shah on Pakistan's Future
Hazrat Zauqi Shah, one of the Sufi writers in India belonging to Chishtiyya order was very instrumental in providing guidance to Muhammad Ali Jinnah in his quest for a separate homeland for the Muslims. Many of his correspondence with Jinnah was published by Sharifuddin Pirzada, a senior advocate in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Hazrat Zauqi Shah has written in many of his writing and expressed in his lectures how the spiritual forces of Islam were working from behind the scenes for the assistance of creation of Pakistan against all odds being pushed by Hindus, British and their associates among Muslims. Many of these lectures and information have been collected in Tarbiyat ul Ushaaq by one of his students Wahid Bakhsh Rabbani. Hazrat Zauqi Shah states that during Pakistan movement, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, one of the spiritual leaders of the Deobandi school, saw a dream in which Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was telling someone that "Jinnah has to fulfill a great responsibility". Hazrat Zauqi Shah also tells that when Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani came to congratulate Jinnah after Pakistan's creation and said "today even I would say Quaid e Azam Zindabaad (Qiaude Azam is great)", to which Jinnah replied "no no, I could not have done this myself had it not been for Allah's blessings. Actually I believe that it is the through the grace of Madinah that we have achieved this." Additionally, it is written in the Tarbiyat how Zauqi Shah states that one of their primary goals to help Jinnah create Pakistan was so that the world of Islam and the non-Muslim world can see a true Islamic order and state in which sovereignty rests with God as against majority secular states which have either capitalism, communism or dictatorships in which sovereignty rests with man.
The creation of Pakistan will allow the world to notice the blessing of Islamic system of governance. In one of the discussions in a gathering Zauqi Shah stated that "Now the world will not experience any peace till the arrival of Imam Mahdi (a.s). What is happening now (i.e. struggle for an Islamic state), we will see the result of this in 100 years. It is not the time to know how one will die, it is time to realize what one should do before death." Someone inquired "what do you think will happen to Pakistan?" Zauqi Shah replied "Pakistan is just a means to a greater end. Actually Pakistan will be no more in future, in fact the entire India will become an Islamic State. In ahadith it is stated that at the time of Imam Mahdi entire world will accept Islam and the real Pakistan will be then. At this time living in this world is a trial. Tranquility will be now only be achieved in grave, and that is only for those who performed good actions." The fulfillment of this vision shared by Hazrat Zauqi Shah makes perfect sense when understood in the light of an end of times hadith in which Prophet Muhammad ﷺ predicted the invasion of India: “There are two groups of my Ummah whom Allah will free from the Fire: The group that invades al-Hind (India), and the group that will be with 'Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him.'" (Sunan An Nasai – Kitab Al Jihad 3175) As per many scholars of Islam this end of times event will be called Ghazwa e Hind (the Battle of India). The fulfillment of this hadith seems very likely with what is happening in India with Hindu nationalist party called BJP in power. BJP is associated with right wing Hindu militant group RSS whose inspiration comes from Nazis. Under BJP regime there are ever increasing attacks against Muslims inside India, in occupied Kashmir, even calls for Muslim genocide and India has become a threat to regional Muslim countries. A possible Muslim genocide in India might cause Pakistanis to demand their rulers to take action against India. A failure of the Pakistani liberal nationalist elite might intensify the existing friction resulting in civil war situation providing India a pretext to invade Pakistan, something which the BJP regime longs for. If India makes that mistake then that is when a big armed Jihad will begin by Muslims of this region against India, which will end in the conquest of Al Hind. Once the entire India comes to be ruled by Islam, only then the purpose for which Pakistan was created will be fulfilled.
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