Prophet's Tribe, Ahlal Bayt (Family) & Righteous Successors
Shahwaliullah Dehlavi (1703 – 1762 CE) a renowned Islamic figure from Mughal era India mentions that there are two types of leadership in Islam and both are necessary for functioning of the Muslim state. He gives an interesting explanation of the purpose of two types of leadership and how did they succeeded the blessed Prophet ﷺ . Sheikh Irshaad Soofi of South Africa shares this thought of Shahwaliullah thought in one of his works:
“Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi said that two types of leaderships appeared; one was the ‘apparent succession’ (khilafate zahiri) and the other ‘hidden succession’ (khilafate baatini). The first Caliph from The Righteous Caliphs (al-Khulafa’u r-Rashidun) inherited the ‘apparent caliphate’ (khilafate zahiri); this, the manifest caliphate is the political office of the religion of Islam, established for improving the administration of the earth. The direct caliphate of Hazrath Abu Bakr as-Siddique was established with the consensus of the people and is categorically proved by the evidence of history and its blessings filtered down to the righteous and just rulers. This model of administration, and call to Islam (dawah) will prevail till the Day of Judgment due to the efforts of the Companions especially Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (r.a) and the righteous caliphs that followed him. Shah Waliullah said that the second type of caliphate that emanated from the Prophet Muhammad was the spiritual legacy of ‘internal (hidden) sovereignty’ or khilaafate or imaamate baatini. This spiritual legacy of the Prophet was known as wilaya (spiritual sovereignty) and imamah (spiritual leadership). The hidden caliphate is exclusively a spiritual office, being not an elective and consultative issue but a selective act, selected by Allah, therefore the declaration of the first Imam of spiritual sovereignty — Hazrath Ali — required neither anybody’s proposal nor support, for it is Allah’s selection. Therefore, the Prophet declared it at Ghadir Al-Khumm Pond of Khumm.”
This explanation of the two types of leadership founds evidence in an incident in which both successors of the Prophet ﷺ namely Abu Bakr (r.a) and Ali (r.a) played their roles of temporal and spiritual leaders. It is a fact that the Prophet ﷺ designated Abu Bakr (r.a) as his representative and Amir Al Hajj (leader of the great pilgrimage) in the in the year 631 CE. This was the first hajj of Muslims after conquest of Makkah in which the Prophet ﷺ did not participate, where leader of the Muslims was Abu Bakr (r.a). He had left Madinah for Makkah with a group of three hundred men. When first verses of Surah Taubah (Chapter 9) were revealed, the Prophet ﷺ declared Ali (r.a) to go and announce these to all Muslims on the day of sacrifice when they were assembled at Mina. It is related that when the revelation came, someone suggested to the Prophet ﷺ that he should send news of it to Abu Bakr (r.a) for announcement. At that moment, he said, “It is not right for anyone to convey this except a man among my family.” The question that arises here is that since Abu Bakr (r.a) is the leader of the hajj and representing the Prophet ﷺ then why a man from his family should announce. This is an echo of the prophetic hadith when he declared in his last hajj “I am leaving behind two weighty things. The first being the Book of Allah, Secondly, (I leave among you) my family (ahlal bayt).” By Ali (r.a) announcing the Surah Tauba verses, the Prophet ﷺ reminded us of the connection between these two. Mind you that at this point Ali (r.a) his not replacing Abu Bakr (r.a) but has informed every one of his own status and place. At this point Abu Bakr (r.a) position is the office of administration and Ali (r.a) holds the spiritual office.
 A renown Islamic scholar, reformer, philosopher, theologian of Indo-Pak subcontinent (1703–1762 CE)
 Chishti, Irshad Soofi Siddiqui. 2010. Madinah to Karbala Holy Blood on Unholy Hands Volume One. Abd al-Qadir Soofi Publications - (Chishti 2010)
 Pilgrim camps.
 Jami Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3090 – Sunnah.com
 Sahih Muslim 2408 a – Sunnah.com
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