Islamic Eschatology – Day of Judgment, Paradise & Hell Fire
The only way to attain salvation
As per Islam the entire humankind’s salvation is dependent upon the Mercy of Allah ﷻ which includes the intercession of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. In order to understand the opportunity for salvation we first need to understand how immense and great is the mercy and grace of Allah ﷻ. Knowing this fact will help us to realize that ultimately it is only through His mercy that people may expect to be saved in the hereafter as He said: “God, who has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy”. Commenting on these words Muhammad Asad said: “The expression ‘God has willed upon Himself as a law’ (kataba 'ala nafsihi) occurs in the Quran only twice - here and in verse 54 of this surah - and in both instances with reference to His grace and mercy (rahmah); none of the other divine attributes (names) has been similarly described. This exceptional quality of God's grace and mercy is further stressed in 7:156 –‘My grace overspreads everything’ - and finds an echo in the authentic Tradition in which, according to the Prophet, God says of Himself, ‘Verily, My grace and mercy outstrips My wrath’.” A prophetic hadith teaches us that one of the underlying reasons for existence of entire creation is the mercy and grace of Allah ﷻ: “When Allah created the creation, He wrote in the Book, which is with Him over His Throne: 'Verily, My Mercy prevails over My Wrath’” Since the existence of entire creation is due to the mercy of the Most Merciful, hence, compared with this temporal life, the life of the hereafter in paradise will be everlasting because paradise is also an expression of Allah’s mercy.
Another hadith explains the immensity of Allah’s mercy in these words: “Verily, Allah created, on the same very day when He created the heavens and the earth, one hundred parts of mercy. Every part of mercy is as big as the space between the heavens and the earth and He out of this mercy endowed one part to the earth and it is because of this that a mother shows affection to her child and even the beasts and birds show kindness to one another and when there would be the Day of Resurrection, Allah would make full (use of Mercy).” In another hadith, it is said: “because of this (one part) that they (all creation on earth) love one another, show kindness to one another.” These ahadith explain that due to just that one portion of those 100 parts (1/100th) that Allah ﷻ sent on earth, the creation shows kindness and mercy to each other, including a mother’s love for her child, which is incomparable. The remaining 99 parts, Allah ﷻ has kept for the Day of Judgment, which teaches us that His mercy is unimaginably great, greater than everything there is.
As part of Allah’s Mercy, there is belief of Prophet Muhammad’s intercession, which he will be allowed to make for not only Muslims but entire humankind. The great sinners will be included in his intercession. The following hadith of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ mentions this:
“On the Day of Resurrection the people will surge with each other like waves, and then they will come to Adam and say, 'Please intercede for us with your Lord.' He will say, 'I am not fit for that but you'd better go to Abraham (Ibrahim) as he is the Khalil of the Beneficent.' They will go to Abraham and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Moses (Musa) as he is the one to whom Allah spoke directly.' So they will go to Moses and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Jesus (Isa ibn Maryam) as he is a soul created by Allah and His Word.' (Be: And it was) they will go to Jesus (Isa) and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Muhammad.' They would come to me and I would say, 'I am for that.' Then I will ask for my Lord's permission, and it will be given, and then He will inspire me to praise Him with such praises, as I do not know now. So I will praise Him with those praises and will fall down, prostrate before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for your will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' …….I will say, 'O Lord, my nation! My nation! (his nation includes Muslims & non-Muslims)' And then it will be said, 'Go and take out of Hell (Fire) all those who have faith in their hearts, equal to the weight of a barley grain.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down (prostrate) before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, My nation! My nation! (his nation includes Muslims & non-Muslims)' It will be said, 'Go and take out of it all those who have faith in their hearts equal to the weight of a small ant or a mustard seed.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down in prostration before Him. It will be said, 'O, Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, My nation!' Then He will say, 'Go and take out (all those) in whose hearts there is faith even to the lightest, lightest mustard seed. (Take them) out of the Fire.' I will go and do so." I will say, 'O Lord, allow me to intercede for whoever said, 'None has the right to be worshiped except Allah.' Then Allah will say, 'By my Power, and my Majesty, and by My Supremacy, and by My Greatness, I will take out of Hell (Fire) whoever said: 'None has the right to be worshipped except Allah.'”
This honor that Allah ﷻ gave to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to intercede for entire humankind is an exclusive one, which has not been given to any other prophet, including Adam , Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus). Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is part of the immense mercy of Allah ﷻ, the 1 out of 100 parts that was sent on earth, as mentioned earlier and it is this reason why Allah ﷻ refers to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as Mercy for entire creation, which includes the nations of all previous prophets, including those of Prophet Isa (alaihi salaam) and Prophet Musa (alaihi salaam): “And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but as a mercy to Al-Ameen (humankind, jinn and all that exists).” Therefore, salvation in Islam for all, humankind and jinn, solely depends on the Mercy and Grace of the most Gracious Allah ﷻ.
 Al Quran 7:154 – Asad Translation.
 Surah Al An’aam (The Sixth Surah) - Asad 1980
 Riyad as-Saliheen Book 1, Hadith 419
 Sahih Muslim 2753 c
 Sahih Muslim 2752 c
 Sahih al-Bukhari 7510
 Al Quran 21:107