Islamic Eschatology – Day of Judgment, Paradise & Hell Fire
The Day of Judgment
In Islam the day of judgment means when all will be judged for their life spent and actions done in this world, especially humankind and jinn. On that day the entire universe will undergo a transformation and humans will continue the everlasting journey, which began with our creation in the primordial existence (pre-earthly world of souls) before we were born on earth.
Day of Judgment in Islam is another phase of this everlasting life, albeit the most important one, just as how our primordial existence in the world of souls was a phase and so is our life on earth a phase. Then will come the Day of Judgment that will also be a phase and then the final eternal phase of life in paradise or hell will also be one. It is due to this reason, pertaining to earthly phase, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ advised us: “Be in this world as though you were a stranger or a passerby.” Just like our own existence, that has not been created with the purpose to be destroyed, similarly the entire universe has not been created to face annihilation. It is actually created to be transformed one day in to a separate formation which will take place on the Day of Judgment and this is what the Quran teaches: “[His promise will be fulfilled] on the Day when the earth shall be changed into another earth, as shall be the heavens and when [all men] shall appear before God, the One who holds absolute sway over all that exists.”
Islamic eschatology claims that the universe will be transformed in to a different formation and then Allah ﷻ will fulfill the promises made to humankind through His prophets and messengers: “Verily, You never fail to fulfill Your promise!”
 Bulugh Al-Maram Book 16, Hadith 1513
 Al Quran 14:48 – Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 3:194 – Asad Translation.
The only way to attain salvation
As per Islam the entire humankind’s salvation is dependent upon the Mercy of Allah ﷻ which includes the intercession of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. In order to understand the opportunity for salvation we first need to understand how immense and great is the mercy and grace of Allah ﷻ. Knowing this fact will help us to realize that ultimately it is only through His mercy that people may expect to be saved in the hereafter as He said: “God, who has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy”. Commenting on these words Muhammad Asad said: “The expression ‘God has willed upon Himself as a law’ (kataba 'ala nafsihi) occurs in the Quran only twice - here and in verse 54 of this surah - and in both instances with reference to His grace and mercy (rahmah); none of the other divine attributes (names) has been similarly described. This exceptional quality of God's grace and mercy is further stressed in 7:156 –‘My grace overspreads everything’ - and finds an echo in the authentic Tradition in which, according to the Prophet, God says of Himself, ‘Verily, My grace and mercy outstrips My wrath’.” A prophetic hadith teaches us that one of the underlying reasons for existence of entire creation is the mercy and grace of Allah ﷻ: “When Allah created the creation, He wrote in the Book, which is with Him over His Throne: 'Verily, My Mercy prevails over My Wrath’” Since the existence of entire creation is due to the mercy of the Most Merciful, hence, compared with this temporal life, the life of the hereafter in paradise will be everlasting because paradise is also an expression of Allah’s mercy.
Another hadith explains the immensity of Allah’s mercy in these words: “Verily, Allah created, on the same very day when He created the heavens and the earth, one hundred parts of mercy. Every part of mercy is as big as the space between the heavens and the earth and He out of this mercy endowed one part to the earth and it is because of this that a mother shows affection to her child and even the beasts and birds show kindness to one another and when there would be the Day of Resurrection, Allah would make full (use of Mercy).” In another hadith, it is said: “because of this (one part) that they (all creation on earth) love one another, show kindness to one another.” These ahadith explain that due to just that one portion of those 100 parts (1/100th) that Allah ﷻ sent on earth, the creation shows kindness and mercy to each other, including a mother’s love for her child, which is incomparable. The remaining 99 parts, Allah ﷻ has kept for the Day of Judgment, which teaches us that His mercy is unimaginably great, greater than everything there is.
As part of Allah’s Mercy, there is belief of Prophet Muhammad’s intercession, which he will be allowed to make for not only Muslims but entire humankind. The great sinners will be included in his intercession. The following hadith of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ mentions this:
“On the Day of Resurrection the people will surge with each other like waves, and then they will come to Adam and say, 'Please intercede for us with your Lord.' He will say, 'I am not fit for that but you'd better go to Abraham (Ibrahim) as he is the Khalil of the Beneficent.' They will go to Abraham and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Moses (Musa) as he is the one to whom Allah spoke directly.' So they will go to Moses and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Jesus (Isa ibn Maryam) as he is a soul created by Allah and His Word.' (Be: And it was) they will go to Jesus (Isa) and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Muhammad.' They would come to me and I would say, 'I am for that.' Then I will ask for my Lord's permission, and it will be given, and then He will inspire me to praise Him with such praises, as I do not know now. So I will praise Him with those praises and will fall down, prostrate before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for your will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' …….I will say, 'O Lord, my nation! My nation! (his nation includes Muslims & non-Muslims)' And then it will be said, 'Go and take out of Hell (Fire) all those who have faith in their hearts, equal to the weight of a barley grain.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down (prostrate) before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, My nation! My nation! (his nation includes Muslims & non-Muslims)' It will be said, 'Go and take out of it all those who have faith in their hearts equal to the weight of a small ant or a mustard seed.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down in prostration before Him. It will be said, 'O, Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, My nation!' Then He will say, 'Go and take out (all those) in whose hearts there is faith even to the lightest, lightest mustard seed. (Take them) out of the Fire.' I will go and do so." I will say, 'O Lord, allow me to intercede for whoever said, 'None has the right to be worshiped except Allah.' Then Allah will say, 'By my Power, and my Majesty, and by My Supremacy, and by My Greatness, I will take out of Hell (Fire) whoever said: 'None has the right to be worshipped except Allah.'”
This honor that Allah ﷻ gave to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to intercede for entire humankind is an exclusive one, which has not been given to any other prophet, including Adam , Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus). Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is part of the immense mercy of Allah ﷻ, the 1 out of 100 parts that was sent on earth, as mentioned earlier and it is this reason why Allah ﷻ refers to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as Mercy for entire creation, which includes the nations of all previous prophets, including those of Prophet Isa (alaihi salaam) and Prophet Musa (alaihi salaam): “And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but as a mercy to Al-Ameen (humankind, jinn and all that exists).” Therefore, salvation in Islam for all, humankind and jinn, solely depends on the Mercy and Grace of the most Gracious Allah ﷻ.
 Al Quran 7:154 – Asad Translation.
 Surah Al An’aam (The Sixth Surah) - Asad 1980
 Riyad as-Saliheen Book 1, Hadith 419
 Sahih Muslim 2753 c
 Sahih Muslim 2752 c
 Sahih al-Bukhari 7510
 Al Quran 21:107
This life is our only chance
Allah ﷻ has mentioned in His book that those destined for hell fire will beg for a second chance but will not be given because this life is our only chance. First, we need to know that the people of the hell fire are those who knew the truth, continued to reject the truth and died without repenting, as mentioned in the Quran: "Verily, as for those who are bent on denying the truth and die as deniers of the truth - not all the gold on earth could ever be their ransom. It is they for whom grievous suffering is in store; and they shall have none to help them." Secondly, this request does not include those who were on their way to accepting the truth but did not accept due to genuine excuse, neither those who never got a chance to learn the truth of Allah’s message and died in their ignorance. This is because Allah ﷻ says: “And so it is that your Sustainer would never destroy a community for its wrongdoing so long as its people are still unaware [of the meaning of right and wrong]: for all shall be judged according to their [conscious] deeds - and your Sustainer is not unaware of what they do.” Then there is additional proof from Quran that Allah ﷻ in His immense mercy will forgive those who missed the opportunity to know the truth or follow it.
Quran distinguishes for us the attitude of those who request for a second chance on the Day of Judgment while their punishment is about to commence: “If you could but see [them] when they will be made to stand before the fire and will say, ‘Oh, would that we were brought back [to life]: then we would not give the lie to our Sustainer's messages, but would be among the believers!’ and if they were brought back [to life], they would return to the very thing which was forbidden to them: for behold, they are indeed liars!” The request for a second chance by those who are going to be punished is similar to the request that occurs in the mind of a disbeliever or sinner who rejected truth and sinned all his life till the time of death and then wanted to repent but it was too late: “repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, "Behold, I now repent"; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth: it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.” People who continue to disbelieve while knowing the truth and reject it till their last moment but beg for mercy on their point of death, do so not because they have learned their lesson and want to accept faith. In fact, they do so because they have no other choice left. The purpose of faith is that it should enter one's heart due to freedom of will. These persons begging to repent at their point of death or wanting a second chance are doing it when they have no choice but to accept the truth that stares right at them. Acceptance at such a moment defeats the purpose of our life and existence, as decreed by Allah ﷻ. It is this same reason why Allah ﷻ has forbidden the believers from making use of force when preaching faith to non-believers: “Let there be no compulsion in matters of faith.” Forcing faith on others deprives them of making use of their God given free will. We are creatures of free will and are encouraged to exercise it correctly for our own good and gain benefit in this world and the hereafter, before our lives come to their end. This freedom of will is a trust, the use of which we are going to be accountable for on the Day of Judgment.
To Learn more on this topic please visit this section: Humankind - Creation & Purpose
 Al Quran 3:91 Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 6:131-132 – Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 6:27 – Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 4:18 – Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 2:256 – Asad Translation.
The Quran distinguishes for us between a non-Muslim who has faith in God and a non-Muslim who is a kaafir (disbeliever) and teaches that while former may have a chance to gain Allah's forgiveness and mercy on Judgment Day, the latter will not be able to escape His punishment.
Disclaimer - Please note that this writing is discussing the non-Muslims situation strictly from a theological perspective i.e. their spiritual relationship with Allah, and not legal perspective of Islamic Law. As per Islamic law all non-Muslims legal status is kaafir i.e. legally speaking they do not believe in Islam and are considered outside of the religion. The legal status of a person is important to ascertain because of consequences of such legal standing with regard to marriage, birth, death, property inheritance etc. As per Islamic law a non-Muslim does not inherit from Muslims, nor do Muslims inherit from non-Muslims. Moreover, a non-Muslim is not buried according to Islamic funeral rites, nor is he or she prayed for after death by Muslims. A non-Muslim cannot marry a Muslim neither can a Muslim marry a non-Muslim, generally speaking. This is to be noted before moving on to our subject of Judgment day.
There seems to be no consensus among Islamic scholars in regards as to what will exactly happen to all non-Muslims on the Judgment Day, who were good and righteous in this world. That is because Judgment in the Hereafter is a decision making process that belongs only to Allah ﷻ, we cannot really pass any judgments for all or some non-Muslims in this world. It would be ignorance for Muslims to pass a judgment for all non-Muslims that is only reserved for the Hereafter. However, due to the fact that Quran’s message is universal and encompasses entire humanity, we notice that some ayahs of the Quran do give hope to the non-Muslims of gaining Allah’s forgiveness and immense mercy. Now there are non-Muslims who live and die as kaafir or disbelievers and that is a separate matter. First we need to understand the matter of non-Muslims i.e. those who have not accept Islam but do have their own faith in God and live according to it.
For instance, non-Muslims such as Christians, believe in One God and His existence but also assign divine qualities to Jesus son of Mary (alaihi salaam) and believe in his divinity. The Quran mentions an Ayah that gives hope to the good among them of Allah’s Mercy on Judgment day despite the fact of their breach of His Oneness: (Al Quran 4:171–173) People of the Book (i.e. Christians), do not go to excess in your religion, and do not say anything about God except the truth: the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was nothing more than a messenger of God, His word, directed to Mary, a spirit from Him. So believe in God and His messengers and do not speak of a ‘Trinity’- stop [this], that is better for you- God is only one God, He is far above having a son, everything in the heavens and earth belongs to Him and He is the best one to trust. The Messiah would never disdain to be a servant of God, nor would the angels who are close to Him. He will gather before Him all those who disdain His worship and are arrogant: to those who believe and do good works He will give due rewards and more of His bounty; to those who are disdainful and arrogant He will give an agonizing torment...." - The Christians have had a difference of opinion over the so called divine nature of Jesus son of Mary (alaihi salaam) for almost 2000 years of their history, which has resulted in numerous sects among them. Now which Christians is Allah ﷻ addressing in the above ayah when He says "to those who believe and do good works He will give due rewards..." and how many and who among these will be forgiven, is His sole decision and all we can do is leave it to Him. Whats important to note is that this ayah teaches us that some non-Muslims among the Christian community will have opportunity to be forgiven.
Similarly Allah ﷻ gives hope of His Forgiveness and Mercy to non-Muslims of other religious communities, whether they be Jews, Christians, Buddhists, may be even Hindus or some groups in the remote regions of Earth that truly believe in One God, despite the fact that they may be unconsciously attributing divinity to other beings or forces in their worship due to Him: (Al Quran 2:62) The [Muslim] believers, the Jews, the Christians, and the Sabians- all those who believe in God and the Last Day and do good- will have their rewards with their Lord. No fear for them, nor will they grieve." - The criteria of salvation lies in the 3 factors for people of all communities: “who believe in God, the Last day and do good” - i.e. those who believe in one God, believe in the Day of Judgment and are concerned about their accountability, as a result of which they behave righteously in this life, whether they are Muslim believers or believers from others religious communities including Jews and Christians, they will be successful in the hereafter.
What about the “Good” Kaafir or Disbelievers?
In classical Arabic a Kaafir means someone who is an "outright disbeliever" or "bent on denying the truth". This term means someone who attempts to bury and hide the truth, someone who knows the truth yet rejects it.
They are those who do not seriously consider accountability before Allah ﷻ on judgment day which equals to denial in the existence of hereafter and belief in Allah ﷻ, and those who disbelieve in Allah ﷻ do not have any real faith, such people are only concerned with temporal world which is not the purpose of humankind’s creation. Therefore, belief in Allah ﷻ and accountability before Him is what makes your life have any value, if whatsoever. The world and all its wealth and attractions is of no value in the sight of Allah ﷻ if there is no faith in people’s hearts, as a prophetic hadith teaches us: “If the world to Allah was worth of a mosquito's wing, then He would not allow the disbeliever to have a sip of water from it.” This statement makes it clear that in the sight of Allah ﷻ the only thing in this world that is of any real value is called faith, and if that is denied by the hearts that are made for it then they can take this world as much as they like but in the hereafter they will have no share. The Quran teaches that such people will attempt to ransom themselves on judgment day to escape punishment of hell fire: (Al Quran 3:91) “Verily, as for those who are bent on denying the truth (kaafirs) and die as deniers of the truth (kaafirs) - not all the gold on earth could ever be their ransom. It is they for whom grievous suffering is in store; and they shall have none to help them.” In his Message of the Quran, Muhammad Assad comments on this verse: “some of the Quran commentators are of the opinion that what is meant here are otherwise good actions in this world (and, in particular, efforts and possessions spent for the sake of helping one's fellow-men), on the strength of which such stubborn "deniers of the truth" might plead for God's clemency on the Day of Judgment - a plea that would be rejected on the ground of their deliberate denial of fundamental truths.” - These non-Muslims who will live life of a denier and die as deniers will attempt to release themselves from Allah's punishment which will be of no use, because whatever righteous deeds they may have done were done based on no real faith in Allah ﷻ or the hereafter, hence based on justice they will be given what they deserve.
 Riyad as-Saliheen Book 1, Hadith 477
 Message of the Quran - Surah Al-'Imran (The House of Imran) 3:91 - Asad 1980
Understanding paradise in Islam
Paradise is called jannah in Arabic in the Quran and the ahadith. The term means something that is hidden or in the al-ghayb (unseen). Al-ghayb is vital part of Islamic faith as said in the beginning of the Quran: “Who believe in the al-ghayb (unseen), establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them.” (To learn more read: Importance of Al-Ghayb in Islamic Faith) Since jannah or paradise is part of a Muslim’s faith that exists in the world of al-ghayb (unseen) therefore we are unable to experience during our earthly lives, any part of it using physical perceptions, the five physical senses that we normally use. The phenomena of paradise exists beyond our ability to experience while we live on earth and if that is the case then how can one truly describe paradise in earthly terms? The best answer to this question is in one of the sayings of Imam Sahl Tustari: “nothing resembles of this world with what is in the hereafter except in words.” We can discuss what is in paradise by comparing to the worldly things, enjoyments and pleasures but that does not mean that they are exactly like these even though they are somewhat similar, as informed to us in the book of Allah ﷻ: “[Prophet], give those who believe and do good the news that they will have Gardens graced with flowing streams. Whenever they are given sustenance from the fruits of these Gardens, they will say, ‘We have been given this before,’ because they were provided with something like it.” For instance they will be provided fruits which they will remember from this world such as maybe apples, grapes etc. but their tastes would be hundred times sweeter, juicier, fresh, delicious and even various unimaginable types. So the Quran does mention that likeness of worldly fruits will be in the hereafter but can relate their actual experience only in words.
Few characteristics of the ‘People of Paradise’
There is a prophetic hadith that lists some characteristics of the people of the paradise, such characteristics that are unimaginable yet relative in terms of our earthly experience: “The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and will resemble their father Adam (in stature), sixty cubits tall.” Characteristics such as ‘glittering like moon’, ‘sweat will be like musks and ‘sixty cubits tall’ are unimaginable even though we know how a moon shines, what sweat is, we also know what musk is and we know that some people are shorter and taller in heights but none experiences on earth exactly what is described above. Therefore these characteristics are only describable for us in words relating to earthly experiences.
Lowest and highest ‘Residents of Paradise’
The following is prophetic hadith that gives us a brief understanding of how people of paradise will be, whether those of the lowest level or those in highest level: “Messenger of Allah ﷺ said Moses (Musa) (alaihi salaam) asked his Lord: ‘Who amongst the inhabitants of Paradise is the lowest to rank?’ He (Allah) said: ‘The person who would be admitted into Paradise last of all among those deserving of Paradise who are admitted to it. It would be said to him: ‘Enter Paradise.’ He would say: ‘O my Lord! how (should I enter) while the people have settled in their apartments and taken the shares (portions)?’ It would be said to him: ‘Would you be pleased if there be for you like the kingdom of a king amongst the kings of the world?’ He would say: ‘I am pleased my Lord.’ He (Allah) would say: ‘For you is that, and like that, and like that, and like that’ and that he would say at the fifth (point): ‘I am well pleased My Lord.’ He (Allah) would say: ‘It is for you and, ten times like it, and for you is what yourself desires and your eye enjoys.’ He would say: ‘I am well pleased, my Lord.’ He (Moses) said: ‘(Which is) the highest of their (inhabitants of Paradise) ranks?’ He (Allah) said: ‘They are those whom I choose. I establish their honour with My own hand and then set a seal over it (and they would be blessed with Bounties) which no eye has seen, no ear has heard and no human mind has perceived’: and this is substantiated by the Book of Allah, Exalted and Great: ‘So no soul knows what delight of the eye is hidden for them; a reward for what they did" (Al Quran 32:17)’.” As one can imagine how the person of the lowest rank in paradise will have a status several times higher than a king of this world which means he or she will have several times greater than what a king of this world would have in addition to whatever else they would desire. So even the great status that lowest level resident in paradise will enjoy, will be of an unimaginable type which can be described in words only. As for those of the highest level their blessings are not even describable in words, no words can even attempt to express their pleasures and joys!
A Tree in Paradise
There is a tree in paradise that is so long and big that if a fast rider was to begin traveling under its shade, he would continue riding till a hundred years yet its shade will not be over. It is said in a prophetic hadith: “Verily, in Paradise there is a tree, a rider will travel in its shade for a hundred years.” This description of a tree in paradise is amazing and unimaginable yet relatable to a tree on earth which also gives shade but the vastness can only be explained in words and can never be fully understood unless experienced in the hereafter.
Houses, soil and pebbles of paradise
There’s another hadith that informs us about the stones, houses and soil of paradise and what is it made of: “It was said to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ‘How is the construction of Paradise?’ He said, ‘A stone of silver and a stone of gold, and its milaat (cement used between stones in the construction of buildings) is musk (best kind of perfume). And its pebbles are pearls and rubies. And its soil is saffron’.” As we have houses, soil and stones on earth yet it’s being made of rubies, pearls, cement being of powdered musk and soil being like that of saffron is unimaginable even though we know what are pearls and rubies as well as saffron yet it would be premature to conclude that by pearls and rubies it means exactly like those of earth. Not quite really because other prophetic hadith and Arabic terms describe to us that these are of a quality not exactly like that of earth. With this understanding it would be sufficient for us to remind ourselves of Allah’s promise where He says: “Now no person knows what delights of the eye are kept hidden (in reserve) for them - as a reward for their (good) deeds.”
We can only read about the lifestyle of paradise, try imagining and nothing more. Real experience is unimaginable and beyond any speculations. Apart from majority of us there are saints and awliya (friends) of Allah ﷻ who are given spiritual experiences about joys of paradise and have shared them, even the Prophet ﷺ himself experienced them during the event of Isra Wa Al Miraj (The night journey and ascension).
 Al Quran 2:203
 A 9th Century CE sufi saint and a scholar.
 Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought -Tafsir Tustari
 Al Quran 2:25
 Sahih al-Bukhari 3327
 Sahih Muslim 189 b
 English Ref: Vol. 4, Book 12, Hadith 2523
 Related by Abu Bakr ibn Abee Shaibah - recorded in Al Bidayah Wa Al Nihaya by Imam Ibn Kathir
 Al Quran 32:17
Can there be a temporary hell?
In order to understand how Hell Fire could be temporary one has to understand the all-encompassing Mercy of Allah ﷻ. Few but very renowned religious authorities in Islam have understood and explained that the concept of hell fire is temporary. They interpreted it as such because Allah ﷻ placed special emphasis towards His attributes of All Pervading Grace (Al Rahman) and All Merciful (Al Raheem) as compared to other attributes in the Quran. As mentioned earlier that one of the prime reasons why Allah ﷻ created the entire universe is due to His grace and mercy as informed to us in a prophetic hadith: “When Allah created the creation, He wrote in the Book, which is with Him over His Throne: 'Verily, My Mercy prevails over My Wrath’” This teaches us that in Islam the purpose of Allah ﷻ to create entire universe is to have mercy and not punish. Since paradise is an expression of Allah’s mercy, similarly, hell fire is an expression of His anger, and His mercy will eventually prevail over His wrath in the hereafter. Allah ﷻ warns us of His punishment but reminds us that the mercy is even greater: “With my chastisement do I afflict whom I will - but My Grace overspreads everything.” Based on what is said in Quran and prophetic teachings about Allah’s immense mercy, some renowned Islamic authorities of the past shared the view that hell is temporary in references to similar verses in the Quran: "[But] He will say: “The fire shall be your abode, therein to abide - unless God wills it otherwise.” Verily, your Sustainer is wise, all-knowing." "Now as for those who [by their deeds] will have brought wretchedness upon themselves, [they shall live] in the fire, where they will have [nothing but] moans and sobs [to relieve their pain], therein to abide as long as the heavens and the earth endure - unless your Sustainer wills it otherwise: for, verily, your Sustainer is a sovereign doer of whatever He wills."
The wording “Unless Your Sustainer Wills it otherwise” and that “Your Sustainer is a sovereign doer of whatever He Wills” is an indication for us that as opposed to the perpetual bliss and happiness of paradise, the term in hell might be temporary. There is a hadith of the Prophet ﷺ, discussed earlier, that mentions about those who will be taken out from the hellfire after being thrown in to it and receiving their due punishment: “[On the Day of Judgment,] those who deserve paradise will enter paradise, and those who deserve the fire, the fire. Thereupon God, the Sublimely Exalted, will say, 'Take out [of the fire] everyone in whose heart there was as much of faith [or, in some versions, "as much of good"] as a grain of mustard seed!' And so they will be taken out of it, already blackened, and will be thrown into the River of Life; and then they will come to life [lit., 'sprout'] as a herb sprouts by the side of a stream: and did you not see how it comes out, yellow and budding?” 
One of the modern leading Islamic scholar Sheikh Hamza Yusuf in his book "Who are the disbelievers" mentions the views of two of the greatest medieval authorities of Islam namely Sheikh Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi and Sheikh Ibn Taymiyyah, who held the view of temporary hell fire: “Both Shaykh Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi and Ibn Taymiyyah held heterodoxic views concerning the Hellfire as a result of their attempts at reconciling divine mercy with the idea of infinite punishment for finite sins. In one transmission considered sound, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah inclined toward an Annihilationist view, which holds that eventually the fire is extinguished. The heretic Jahm b. Safwan also shared this view, and it is common among some Jewish ethicists. Shaykh Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi held that eventually the people of the Fire become fire-like and no longer feel pain but actually come to enjoy the Fire.” However, in this same book, Sheikh Hamza does mention his own point of view to be in accordance the mainstream orthodox opinion in Islam which includes Imam Ghazzali that many would suffer eternally in hellfire and they would be those like satan who knowingly rejected the truth and were deeply engrossed in their arrogance. For this view, he shares the orthodox opinions and supports them with ahadith of the Prophet ﷺ such as: “Shall I not tell you who the denizens of the Fire are?” His companions replied, “Indeed, tell us.” He then said, “Every cruel, harsh, puffed up, miserly, arrogant one.” Also famous hadith, which is the first hadith transmitted to students of hadith, states, “Whoever shows no mercy will have no mercy shown [to him].”
Nevertheless, after reading views of Hamza Yusuf the following hadith of the Prophet ﷺ came to my mind: “Whoever has a mustard seed's weight of pride (arrogance) in his heart, shall not be admitted into Paradise. And whoever has a mustard seed's weight of faith in his heart, shall not be admitted into the Fire.” No doubt, there is indication in the Quran about Hell Fire being temporary and great scholars who shared their opinion regarding it. In the prophetic ahadith there is proof many would be thrown into the fire temporarily, taken out, and sent to paradise but there is also proof of some who will not be shown mercy. In the end however we can share our opinions based on authentic sources in Islam and let final decisions rest with Allah ﷻ: “But all judgment rests with God, the Exalted, the Great!”
 Riyad as-Saliheen Book 1, Hadith 419
 Al Quran 7:156 – Asad Translation.
 Al Quran 6:28 & Al Quran 11:106-107
 Bukhari, on the authority of Abu Said al-Khudri, in Kitab al-Iman and Kitab Bad al-Khalq; also Muslim, Nasai and Ibn Hanbal - Asad 1980
Heterodox view i.e. not widely accepted by majority scholars.
Who are the Disbelievers? - Yusuf 2008
 Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4116
 Jami at-Tirmidhi 1998
 Al Quran 40:12 – Asad Translation.